1492 – Columbus came to America


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1492 – Columbus came to America

  • 1492 – Columbus came to America

    • Spaniards came to explore American mainland
  • 1500s – Spanish explorers

    • Cabeza de Vaca and Coronado
    • reinforced their claim to Texas
  • Friars were establishing missions

  • 1682 – La Salle led first the European expedition to navigate the Mississippi River and Gulf of Mexico

    • Claimed the entire region surrounding the Mississippi for France/France had a claim to Texas




Missions had several purposes

  • Missions had several purposes

  • Convert the Natives to the Catholic faith

  • Teach the natives to be subjects of Spain (loyal to the government)



Spaniards feared a French Texas

  • Spaniards feared a French Texas

    • Decided it was time to settle Texas
    • Renewed efforts to establish missions and settlement
  • The major goal of missions was to help Spain colonize and eventually become the greatest nation in the world.





*Martin de Alarcón – established San Antonio de Valero – one of the most important missions in Texas

  • *Martin de Alarcón – established San Antonio de Valero – one of the most important missions in Texas

  • *Francisco Hidalgo – tireless advocate for missions and Indians; attempted to reestablish missions in East Texas



Missions were the main tool for colonizing Texas.

  • Missions were the main tool for colonizing Texas.

  • Most missions were a square compound with enclosed walls to protect those inside.

  • Run by a priest.

  • Often had lookout towers.





Missions were expected to:

  • Missions were expected to:

  • Be self supporting (grow, make its own stuff)

  • Make a profit$$$ for Spain

  • Produce goods for export ( beads, artwork)









Morning Prayers

  • Morning Prayers

  • 30-60 minutes of Catholic school

  • Worked in the field or workshops

  • After evening meal, more prayers

  • More Catholic school



Missions were not all that successful.

  • Missions were not all that successful.

  • Mission population shrank.

  • Natives ran away because they disliked mission life.

  • It cost the Spanish government $$$ to keep these missions going.





Some missions did thrive (do well) and eventually became major cities.

  • Some missions did thrive (do well) and eventually became major cities.

  • El Paso

  • San Antonio

  • Many East Texas missions were named after Native Texan tribes



Missions brought civilization and religion to Texas.

  • Missions brought civilization and religion to Texas.

  • New diseases also came with the missionaries and colonists. The Native Texans had no immunities to these diseases, so many died of influenza and other simple illnesses.



Provided military support for the missions, and later, settlements.

  • Provided military support for the missions, and later, settlements.

  • It protected missionaries and colonists from attacks by Native Americans.



Established in 1682 by Spanish friars

  • Established in 1682 by Spanish friars

  • Located a few miles east of the present-day El Paso

  • Texas’ oldest mission

  • All that remains is the restored mission church

  • Has changed names several times making it difficult to keep up with











Deleon and Massanet return to Mexico City

  • Deleon and Massanet return to Mexico City

  • In 1691, Massanet and a new governor Domingo Teran de los Rios, first appointed governor of Spanish Texas

  • Tension arise between the two men, pitting missionaries against the soldiers due to drought, crop failures and disease

  • Tejas blame the Spanish as a result, the Spanish burn the mission and flee back to Mexico City



Founded Mission San Juan Batista (Rio Grande), wrote letter to Governor of Louisiana (French) to help build missions

  • Founded Mission San Juan Batista (Rio Grande), wrote letter to Governor of Louisiana (French) to help build missions

  • French explorer Louis Juchereau de St. Denis sent to find Father Hildalgo

  • St. Denis found trading post in Natchitoches, Lousiana (1714)

  • St. Denis finds Hildalgo, but is arrested by Presidio Commander Diego Ramon, lives with them, until sent south to Mexico City.



Originally founded in 1716 in Eastern Texas

  • Originally founded in 1716 in Eastern Texas

  • Transferred in 1731 to its present location

  • Helped support San Antonio missions and local settlements

  • By the mid 1700s, it was a regional supplier of agricultural produce





Founded in 1720

  • Founded in 1720

  • Reached its peak in 1794 with 350 Indians

  • Completely closed as a mission in 1824

  • The state’s largest restored mission compound and has the most ornate church façade

  • Still a parish church







June 1716, brought more soldiers, priests, civilians to include women into East Texas

  • June 1716, brought more soldiers, priests, civilians to include women into East Texas

  • Built Nuestro Padre San Francisco de los Tejas

  • *Antonio Margil de Jesus – established more missions (Nacogdoches, Texas)considered one of the founders of Texas and San Miguel de los Adades (Louisiana)

  • Ramon built a presidio on the Neches River

  • Tejas supported missions, they were not interested in converting to Catholicism



Governor of Spanish Texas builds a mission on the San Antonio River in 1718, Mission San Antonio de Valero

  • Governor of Spanish Texas builds a mission on the San Antonio River in 1718, Mission San Antonio de Valero

  • Winters were mild and summers were hot, but not very humid, cotton wood trees dotted most of the land

  • Antonio Margil de Jesus establishes San Jose y San Miguel de Aguayo becoming the most profitable mission in Texas, by 1781, a sugar mill was built.

  • Ultimately, many Coahuiltecan lived there and large rancho’s of cattle

  • 15 Canary Islands families move to the presidio, town named San Fernando de Bexar; first civil government rule

  • The entire area is renamed San Antonio de Bexar or San Antonio









June 1719, French soldiers surprise 2 Spaniards near a mission what is not Robeline, Louisiana

  • June 1719, French soldiers surprise 2 Spaniards near a mission what is not Robeline, Louisiana

  • French took supplies to include several chickens from the mission’s henhouse

  • The French officer tied them to his horse, but the horse was frightened and the rider was thrown

  • The confusion allowed one of the Spaniards to escape and warn of the incident, this became known as the Chicken War

  • The raid causes the Spanish to fortify the region and retake the area



Marques de San Miguel de Aguayo, governor of Coahuila and Texas in 1721, reclaimed the lost missions and rebuilt them

  • Marques de San Miguel de Aguayo, governor of Coahuila and Texas in 1721, reclaimed the lost missions and rebuilt them

  • Nuestra Senora del Pilar de los Adades would serve as capital of Texas

  • The other was Nuesra Denora de Loreto de la Bahia del Espiritu Santo or La Bahia

  • The Expedition secured East Texas for the Spanish and end French claims to Texas.



Long stretches of the Gulf Coast inhabitated by Native Americans and was open for France/England to claim this area. Spain again was concerned.

  • Long stretches of the Gulf Coast inhabitated by Native Americans and was open for France/England to claim this area. Spain again was concerned.

  • 1746 Jose de Escandon established a colony in La Bahia

  • Ranching industry grew in this area along the San Antonio River

  • Missionaries improved relationship with Karankawa

  • Escandon founded 24 settlements in South Texas and 15 missions.

  • More than 6000 people lived in these colonies compared to all the 1800 that lived in rest of Texas



Fort dates back to 1749

  • Fort dates back to 1749

  • La Bahía’s job to protect Mission Espíritu Santo

  • Site of many skirmishes during the Mexican and Texan revolutions

  • Karankawa Indians not hospitable

    • Moved to the Guadalupe River
  • Goliad





Founded originally in 1722 on the Texas coast

  • Founded originally in 1722 on the Texas coast

  • Where Texas cattle business had its rudimentary beginnings

  • Karankawa Indians proved “cantankerous”

    • Moved in 1726 to the Guadalupe River
  • Closed in 1830

  • Situated in the middle of the Goliad State Historical Park





San Saba 1757 built by Franciscan with a presidio to guard it

  • San Saba 1757 built by Franciscan with a presidio to guard it

  • Little success was made to convert the Apaches, but they did live at the mission

  • Comanche, Tonkawa, Caddo numbering 2000 warriors attacked the Apaches and the mission in 1758

  • Burned the mission and killed the preists

  • This ended Spanish attempts to spread into Central Texas





Information

  • Information

  • Anderson, Adrian N. et al. Texas and Texans. Columbus: Glencoe/McGraw Hill, 1993.

  • Foster, Nancy Haston. The Texas Monthly Guidebooks: Texas Missions, Houston: Gulf Publishing Company, 1995, 150 pgs.

  • http://www.nps.gov/saan/

  • http://hotx.com/missions/history.html

  • http://www.lsjunction.com/facts/missions.htm

  • http://www.tsha.utexas.edu/handbook/online/articles/SS/its2.html




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