1682 – mission at Corpus Christi de la Ysleta established (El Paso)


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1682 – mission at Corpus Christi de la Ysleta established (El Paso)

  • 1682 – mission at Corpus Christi de la Ysleta established (El Paso)

  • Most Spanish activity in East Texas

  • Fear of French settlements - ↑ in building missions, presidios (military settlements), and towns

  • Learned of La Salle’s fort – sent Alonso de León to destroy fort



De León goes NW and meets group of Hasinai (called Tejas – meaning friend)

  • De León goes NW and meets group of Hasinai (called Tejas – meaning friend)

  • Angelina served as a guide and interpreter

  • Father Damián Massanet sought to have mission built in East Texas

    • June 1, 1690 – San Francisco de los Tejas


San Francisco de los Tejas faced troubles

  • San Francisco de los Tejas faced troubles

    • Drought, disease, and rejection of Catholic faith
  • France no longer a threat; therefore, mission abandoned

  • 1699 – Mission San Juan Bautista “Mother of Texas Missions”

    • Built near present-day Eagle Pass on Rio Grande
    • Provided series of river crossings
    • Grew into 3 missions, a presidio, and a town
    • Base for many expeditions into East Texas
    • Provided grain, cattle, and horses to E. Tex missionaries
  • Father Francisco Hidalgo asks permission to return to E. Tex but is ignored



1699 – French colony established along mouth of Mississippi River

  • 1699 – French colony established along mouth of Mississippi River

  • French not interested in taking Indian territory or converting to Catholicism

  • Made large profits by exchanging blankets, guns, and wine for furs, and skins

  • Hoped to trade with Spanish merchants in Mexico, but Spanish law prohibited foreigners from trading in Spanish colonies

  • Father Hidalgo asks French to establish mission among Tejas

  • French see offer as an opening to trade

  • Louis de St. Denis sent to negotiate with Spanish

  • Captain Diego Ramón alarmed at unexpected arrival of French – St. Denis arrested but later allowed to escort Spanish to East Texas





1716 Spanish return to East Texas

  • 1716 Spanish return to East Texas

  • Spanish families come as well

  • 1717 – 6 missions and a presidio (Nuestra Señora de los Dolores de los Tejas)



Need for midway settlement between Rio Grande and East Texas

  • Need for midway settlement between Rio Grande and East Texas

  • Spanish of East Texas had to trade with French or starve

  • Presidio San Antonio de Bexar built in 1718

  • Father Antonio de San Buenaventrua y Olivares founded San Antonio de Valero



1719 – War breaks out between Spain and France

  • 1719 – War breaks out between Spain and France

  • French soldiers seize Spanish mission near Nacogdoches

  • Mission priest exaggerates size of invasion and causes a panic of Spanish families

  • Marqués de San Miguel de Aguayo heads to East Texas with 500 soldiers-settlers, thousands of horses and mules, and large herds of sheep and cattle



Nuestra Señora del Pilar de los Adaes established in Louisiana – made unofficial capital of Texas for almost 50 years

  • Nuestra Señora del Pilar de los Adaes established in Louisiana – made unofficial capital of Texas for almost 50 years

  • La Bahía del Espíritu Santo created near La Salle’s old fort (Fort St. Louis)



Aguayo established 9 missions, 2 villages, and 4 presidios

  • Aguayo established 9 missions, 2 villages, and 4 presidios

  • 1727 – Spain’s expenses too high

  • 3 missions moved to San Antonio

  • Boundary between Spain and France Texas

    • Arroyo Hondo – river between Los Adaes and Natchitoches (Louisiana)


East Texas Native Americans not interested and left missionaries alone

  • East Texas Native Americans not interested and left missionaries alone

  • Plains culture resent invasion of hunting grounds

    • Apaches raided San Antonio
    • Comanches fought invaders and took Spanish horses
  • San Xavier missions established and abandoned

    • Apache raids
    • Smallpox and measles
    • Drought
    • Tonkawas left


1757 – mission found in central Texas

  • 1757 – mission found in central Texas

  • Apaches wanted mission as protection against Comanches

  • Comanches attacks took 30 lives

  • Failure due to lack of supplies and people as well as distance from help





Teach Native Americans the Spanish way of life

  • Teach Native Americans the Spanish way of life

  • Sometimes force was used

  • Native Americans

    • Kept busy from dawn to dusk
    • Started each day with prayers
    • Children attended school
    • Women wove cloth, molded pottery, & cooked
    • Men farmed, learned carpentry, or blacksmithing
  • Most Native Americans refused to stay at the missions



Isolated and poorly equipped

  • Isolated and poorly equipped

  • Difficult and dangerous duties

  • Protect the mission and nearby settlements

  • Maintain control over the Native Americans

  • Scout countryside for intruders

  • Military families brought to missions



San Antonio

  • San Antonio

    • Largest settlement
    • Only authorized settlement with a voice in the government
    • Elected an ayuntamiento (city council) and an alcalde (chief official)
  • Los Adaes

  • Nacogdoches



Mainly farmers – irrigated fields through an elaborate system of canals

  • Mainly farmers – irrigated fields through an elaborate system of canals

  • Ranchers

  • Shopkeepers, barbers, tax collectors, servants, tailors, blacksmiths

  • Population – Spaniards, Native Americans, Mestizos (mixture of Spanish and Native American)



Tejano – person of Mexican heritage who considers Texas his/her home

  • Tejano – person of Mexican heritage who considers Texas his/her home

  • Population

  • Religion

  • Language

  • Customs today




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