75 Years of Particle Accelerators


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75 Years of Particle Accelerators

  • Andrew M. Sessler

  • Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

  • Berkeley, CA 94720

  • Accelerators started with some theoretical work in the early 1920s, with the first accelerator producing nuclear reaction in 1931. Thus it is exactly 75 years of history we shall be reviewing.


Motivation



Table of Contents



I. Electrostatic Accelerators



I.1 Voltage Multiplying Columns











I.3 Tandems





II. Cyclotrons



Major Nuclear Advances of the 1930s (My opinion)



Celebrating our 75 th Anniversary E.O.Lawrence in 1930



The First Cyclotron



The Original Rad Lab



II.1 Lawrence and the Early Cyclotrons





The 60 Inch Cyclotron





II.2 Transverse Focusing and Phase Focusing





II.3 Calutrons





II.4 FFAG







III. Linear Accelerators



III.1 Proton and Heavy Ion Linacs









III.2 Induction Linacs









III.3 Electron Linacs





IV. Betatrons









V. Synchrotrons



V.1 First Synchrotrons













V.2 Strong Focusing









VI.Colliders



VI.1 Early Colliders















VI.2 Proton – Antiproton Colliders







VI.3 The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC)





VII. Synchrotron Radiation Sources



VII.1 Synchrotron X-Ray Sources











VII.2 Linear Coherent Light Source and the European Union X-Ray Free Electron Laser









VIII. Cancer Therapy Machines







IX.The Future



1. The International Linear Collider (ILC)









2. Spallation Neutron Sources













3. Rare Isotope Accelerator and FAIR





4. Neutrino Super Beams, Neutrino Factories, and Muon Colliders







5. Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion





6. Proton Drivers for Power Reactors





7. Lasers and Plasmas





X. Concluding Remarks Accelerator Milestones



X. Concluding Remarks Accelerator Milestones (Cont)



X. Conclusion






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