830- > 1200 languages (20-25 per cent of the world’s languages)


Download 445 b.
Sana10.01.2019
Hajmi445 b.







830- > 1200 languages (20-25 per cent of the world’s languages)

  • 830- > 1200 languages (20-25 per cent of the world’s languages)

    • Out of them about a quarter belong to the Austronesian family.
  • Families that include more than 100 languages in the area:

    • Austronesian
    • Trans New Guinea (about 300 languages)
  • Average number of languages within a family is about 25.

  • The largest language is Enga: 230.000 speakers (2000)

  • Many languages have less than 100 speakers.





The largest language density and genetic density in the world.

    • The largest language density and genetic density in the world.
  • Probable reasons:

    • Early settling (> 40.000 years ago)
    • Landscape (mountains, jungles)
    • The absence of large political units
      • Till recently
      • Now:
        • Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini
        • Irian Jaya


Considerable typological diversity

  • Considerable typological diversity

    • Some languages are almost isolating
      • Ternate (западнопапуасская семья; Молуккские о-ва; Hayami-Allen 2001)


Considerable typologigal diversity

  • Considerable typologigal diversity

    • Others are polysynthetic.
      • Yimas (Sepik-Ramu; Foley 1991)


Simple phonological systems

  • Simple phonological systems

    • About 20 phonemes on average
      • Sometimes far less: Rotokas (Bougainville Island)
        • Alphabet: A E G I K O P R S T U V
          • 12 letters = 11 phonemes
          • However, the vowel length is not reflected
        • How this looks like


Word order: mainly SOV (sometimes SVO, due to the Austronesian influence)

  • Word order: mainly SOV (sometimes SVO, due to the Austronesian influence)

  • Frequent head marking, more rarely double/dependent marking



Ergative is often optional and is used for specific information

  • Ergative is often optional and is used for specific information

    • emphasizing the control of agent
    • non-standard information structure
    • unexpected roles
      • Dani (Foley 2000)
      • ap palu-nen na-sikh-e
      • man python-ERG eat-RM.PAST- 3SG.SBJ
      • ‘The python ate the man’
      • ap palu-nen na-sikh-e
      • ‘The man ate the python’
      • Explanation: Normally, people eat pythons and not vice versa


Gender / nominal classes are not really developed

  • Gender / nominal classes are not really developed

  • Inanwatan (Marind < Trans New Guinea))

  • a. mesida-e bada-e-wo

  • person-M bad-M-be ‘Man is bad’

  • b. mesida-o bada-o-wo

  • person-F bad-F-be ‘Woman is bad’

  • Mianmin (Ok < Trans New Guinea)

  • a. imen-e small/one taro (MASC)

  • b. imen-e large taro/large quantity of taro (FEM)

  • Yimas: 11 nominal classs



Expressing spatial semantics

  • Expressing spatial semantics

  • Kemtuk (Nimboran)

  • a. iti-si-l-u

  • give-away.to.near.position.below-FUT- 1 SBJ

  • ‘I will give it to you down there near here’

  • b. iti-sa-l-u

  • give-away.to.far.level.position-FUT-1 SBJ

  • ‘I will give it to you way over there’



Expressing spatial semantics

  • Expressing spatial semantics

  • Ternate (West Papuan; Moluccas; Hayami-Allen 2001)





Several families?

  • Several families?

  • J. Greenberg: Indo-Pacificsuperfamily = Tasmanian + Papuan + Andaman

  • The beginning of the 19th c.: for 30 years, the number of Tasmanian aborigines decreased from 5.000 to 500

  • Fanny Cochrane Smith (1834-1905) – “the last Tasmanian”

    • made the only recording of a Tasmanian language (most likely, lingua franca): songs
    • had 11 children, from whom many current “Tasmanians” are descended




Ethnologue

  • Ethnologue

  • Pama-Nyungan (281)

  • Lanima

  • Bunaban (2)

  • Daly (19)

  • Djamindjungan (2)

  • Djeragan (3)

  • Giimbiyu (3)

  • Gunwingguan (25)

  • Laragiyan (1)



299 languages according to Ethnologue

  • 299 languages according to Ethnologue

  • About 20 languages which are not endangered

  • The largest languages (all have less than 3.000 speakers)

    • Warlpiri
    • Tiwi
    • Pitjantjatjara


Pama-Nyungan

  • Pama-Nyungan

    • вmore or less synthetic
    • dependent or double marking
  • Non-Pama-Nyungan

    • many languages are polysynthetic
    • Tiwi
    • jinuatəməniŋilipaŋəmat̪at̪umaŋələpiaŋkin̪a
    • He came and stole my wild honey this morning while I was asleep
    • head or dependent marking


Vowels

  • Vowels

    • Typically i-a-u
    • Some languages only have two vowels (a, ә)
  • Consonants



The choice of the case is determined by the place of a NP in the Animacy Hierarchy

  • The choice of the case is determined by the place of a NP in the Animacy Hierarchy

    • ProN > Human > Animate > Inanimate
  • Dyirbal (pronouns: Nom vs Acc, nouns: Abs vs Erg)



In some languages, the pivotness of the absolutive argumant is supported by tests which usually point to agentsают на агенса независимо от эргативности/аккузативности. Йидинь:

  • In some languages, the pivotness of the absolutive argumant is supported by tests which usually point to agentsают на агенса независимо от эргативности/аккузативности. Йидинь:

    • Purpose clauses
    • Deletion in coordinate structures


“Insufficient” grammaticalization of embededness, “flat structure”

  • “Insufficient” grammaticalization of embededness, “flat structure”

  • Very free word order

  • «Discontinuous constituents» (or several constituents?)

    • Jiwarli (Austin & Bresnan 1996: 246)
    • Dixon: General information precedes its specification.
    • Hale: Various interpretations of a single sentence. Warlpiri:
  • Свободное «опущение» именных групп

    • Диксон: общая информация идет перед уточняющей.


Part-whole constructions

  • Part-whole constructions

    • Jiwarli(Austin & Bresnan 1996)
  • “Adjoined relative clause”: non-embedded, yet subordinated clause which may have functions of both a relative clause and an adverbial clause. Warlpiri:

  • Insubordination: the “omission” of the matrix clause



Dench & Evans: Functions of cases (besides the usual relational one)

  • Dench & Evans: Functions of cases (besides the usual relational one)

  • Adnominal

  • Referential –

  • “agreement”

  • Warlpiri

  • Complementizer – marking subordinate clausesпредикации

  • Yukulta

  • Associating – non-standard marking of NPs dependent on a limited range of forms (associating with these forms)



Multiple case marking – the appearance of several cases used in different functions within the same word

  • Multiple case marking – the appearance of several cases used in different functions within the same word

  • Kayardild




Do'stlaringiz bilan baham:


Ma'lumotlar bazasi mualliflik huquqi bilan himoyalangan ©fayllar.org 2017
ma'muriyatiga murojaat qiling