A. Early Battles Across the World


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A. Early Battles Across the World

  • A. Early Battles Across the World

    • Serbia: Austria-Hungary invade
    • Africa: Britain & France fight Germany in south & west
    • Asia: New Zealand, Australia, and Japan invade and seize German and Chinese territory
    • First Battle of Tannenberg: German defeats Russia in East Prussia




September 5, 1914

  • September 5, 1914

  • Allies attack Germans

  • Germans retreat 60 miles



WWI becomes a “War of Attrition

  • WWI becomes a “War of Attrition

  • 1. Following the Battle of the Marne, war on Western Front became

  • a stalemate

  • 2. Trench Warfare begins and WWI became a fight to outlast and

  • survive by keep adding troops and weapons



Feb 21-Dec 18, 1916

  • Feb 21-Dec 18, 1916

  • Germans launch attack against the French

  • Longest and most devastating battle in WWI

  • half a million lives lost



July 1-13, 1916



Russia faces problems

  • Russia faces problems

  • 1. Shortages (food, weapons, ammunition, clothes)

  • 2. Allies couldn't ship supplies due to blockades by Central Powers

  • 3. Suffered major casualties (2 million KIA, MIA, or wounded in 1915 alone)







Unrestricted submarine warfare by Germans begins in 1917

  • Unrestricted submarine warfare by Germans begins in 1917

  • 1. Lusitania sunk by German

  • U-Boat on May 7, 1915

  • (1,098 killed including 128 Americans)

  • Outcome: U.S. outraged!



"It must be a peace without victory...Victory would mean peace forced upon the loser, a victor's terms imposed upon the vanquished. It would be accepted in humiliation, under duress, at an intolerable sacrifice, and would leave a sting, a resentment, a bitter memory upon which terms of peace would rest, not permanently, but only as upon quicksand. Only a peace between equals can last." — Woodrow Wilson, 22 January 1917

  • "It must be a peace without victory...Victory would mean peace forced upon the loser, a victor's terms imposed upon the vanquished. It would be accepted in humiliation, under duress, at an intolerable sacrifice, and would leave a sting, a resentment, a bitter memory upon which terms of peace would rest, not permanently, but only as upon quicksand. Only a peace between equals can last." — Woodrow Wilson, 22 January 1917



March 1918= Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: Russian treaty with Germans to

  • March 1918= Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: Russian treaty with Germans to

  • exit WWI due to Russian Revolution

  • B. July 1918 = Allies defeat Germans at Chateau-Thierry

  • Sept. 1918 = Allies defeat Central Powers at 2nd Battle of the Marne

  • Outcome: Bulgaria surrenders

  • Oct. 1918 = Ottoman Empire surrenders and Austria-Hungary splits

  • E. Nov. 1918 = civil unrest and military uprising force Kaiser Wilhelm II to abdicate the throne











$300 Billion

  • $300 Billion



Jan. 1919 Allies meet in Versailles, France to arrange peace treaty for WWI (The Paris Peace Conference)

  • Jan. 1919 Allies meet in Versailles, France to arrange peace treaty for WWI (The Paris Peace Conference)

  • 1. The Big Four:

  • - Woodrow Wilson (U.S.)

  • - David Lloyd George (Britain)

  • - Georges Clemenceau (France)

  • - Vittorio Orlando (Italy)

  • 2. Not Invited:

  • - Russia

  • 3. No Role:

  • - countries from Central Powers



Problems:

  • Problems:

  • 1. New political situations (Austria-Hungary, Russia, Germany, Ottoman Empire)

  • 2. Colonies want independence (Nationalism)

  • 3. Allied Powers make territory demands





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