A. Farm Families: Women in the Household Economy


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A. Farm Families: Women in the Household Economy

  • A. Farm Families: Women in the Household Economy

    • Women - duty “to love and reverence” husbands
    • girls learned from mothers - subordinate to fathers
    • 2. Wife as the “helpmate”
    • Women assumed the role - dutiful helpmates
    • 3. Motherhood
    • Most married - early twenties - birth 6 or 7 times by their early forties
    • 4. Restrictions
    • No equality for women within the church; most women accepted such restrictions as social norms


B. Farm Property: Inheritance

  • B. Farm Property: Inheritance

    • Family authority
    • landless children placed as indentured servants
    • landless men - laborer to tenant to freeholder.
    • 2. Children of wealthy parents
    • parents choose children’s spouses - economic concerns outweighed love
    • 3. Marriage
    • Bride gave husband legal ownership of her property
    • 4. Father’s duty
    • provide inheritance for children or lose status
    • men moved families to frontier - land cheap and abundant


C. Freehold Society in Crisis

  • C. Freehold Society in Crisis

    • Population increase
    • Rapid natural increase doubled population
    • from 100,000 in Puritan colonies – 1700
    • 2. Changes in family life
    • Parents provide one child inheritance of land
    • less control over their children
    • couples limit family size or moved to the frontiers
    • 3. “Household mode of production”
    • System of community exchange families swapped labor and goods


A. Economic Growth, Opportunity, and Conflict

  • A. Economic Growth, Opportunity, and Conflict

  • 1. Tenancy in New York

  • attract migrants, landowners granted long leases and the rights to sell improvements (houses, barns)

  • new tools such as the cradle scythe (1750s) increased the amount of grain produced but not enough to enable quick profits and land ownership.

  • 2. Conflict in the Quaker Colonies – Early Quakers had settled in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, building simple homes and getting by with little.

  • By 1760s, wealthy landowners in eastern Pennsylvania were using slaves and poor immigrants on their farms

  • a new class of “agricultural capitalists” forming = men who were landlords, speculators, storekeepers, and large-scale farmers

  • their presence marked the growing divisions between the social classes in the region.



B. Cultural Diversity

  • B. Cultural Diversity

    • 1. Religious and ethnic diversity – The city of Philadelphia had more than 12 religious denominations present in 1748
    • migrants married within their ethnic groups
    • large population of wealthy Quakers helped to shape the culture of Pennsylvania
    • pacifists purchased land from Native Americans rather than seizing it


2. The German Influx – 100,000 German migrants settled in the Pennsylvania/western New Jersey region in the 17th and 18th centuries

    • 2. The German Influx – 100,000 German migrants settled in the Pennsylvania/western New Jersey region in the 17th and 18th centuries
    • discouraged from marrying outside of their ethnicity; advocated married women having the legal right to hold property and write wills
    • 3. Scots-Irish Settlers – Largest group of migrants came from Ireland, numbering about 115,000
    • most were Scots and Presbyterians who had faced religious and economic repression by the English
    • settled in Pennsylvania region for religious tolerance; retained cultural practices.


C. Religion and Politics

  • C. Religion and Politics

  • 1. Religious Diversity – Orthodox church officials of several religions brought intolerance to the colonies.

  • religious groups enforced acceptable behavior through communal self-discipline

  • Quaker marriage rules maintained that couples have land and livestock; wealthy Quakers encouraged marriage among their children, while the poor remained single or married later in life.

  • As Quaker population declined by 1750s, religious groups seeking increased political power (Lutherans and Baptists)



A. Transportation and the Print Revolution

  • A. Transportation and the Print Revolution

    • 1. Improved transportation networks – From 1700 to 1750, colonies transformed by dramatic increases in shipping in the north Atlantic and construction of new networks of roads
    • transportation networks carried people, merchandise, information, and printed matter.
    • 2. Print revolution – In 1695, British government surrendered the power to censor all printed materials
    • printers in England responded with a flood of newspapers, pamphlets, handbills, advertisements, scientific treatises, novels, and other printed matter
    • publications crossed the Atlantic and colonies began to create their own new publications, which facilitated the development of colonial identity and solidarity.


B. The Enlightenment in America

  • B. The Enlightenment in America

    • 1. The European Enlightenment – Emphasized the power of human reason
    • Philosophers used empirical research and scientific reasoning to study social institutions and human behavior
    • four fundamental principles: law-like order of the natural world, power of human reason, natural rights of individuals (self-government), and improvement of society through progress.
    • 2. John Locke – English philosopher; wrote Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690), stressing the importance of environment and experience on human beliefs and behavior
    • Two Treatises on Government (1690) argued that political authority did not come from divine right but from social compacts with the people who have the power to change their government.


3. Franklin’s Contributions – Born in Boston in 1706, Franklin was the exemplar of the American Enlightenment

    • 3. Franklin’s Contributions – Born in Boston in 1706, Franklin was the exemplar of the American Enlightenment
    • shaped by Enlightenment literature and not the Bible. Franklin became a “deist” and believed that a Supreme Being (or Grand Architect) created the world and then allowed it to operate by natural laws but did not intervene in people’s lives
    • relied on “natural reason,” or the innate moral sense to define right and wrong.


C. American Pietism and the Great Awakening

  • C. American Pietism and the Great Awakening

    • 1. Pietism – evangelical Christian movement = personal relationship with God
    • appealed to “believers hearts rather than their minds.”
    • 2. New England Revivalism– 1730s, Jonathan Edwards preached the helplessness of men and women
    • “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” (1741), successfully incited religious fervor in the region.
    • 3. Whitefield’s Great Awakening – Spoke from memory about the power of God and the need to seek salvation; followers were called “New Lights” for their claim that they felt a new light in them after hearing Whitefield


D. Religious Upheaval in the North

  • D. Religious Upheaval in the North

    • 1. Old Lights and New Lights – Old Lights (conservative ministers) condemned the crying and fainting of New Lights in revival meetings and the New Light practice of women speaking in public
    • new enthusiasm for religion led to the founding of schools for ministers (Princeton, Columbia, Brown, and Rutgers)
    • 2. Challenges to authority – Great Awakening challenged authority of all ministers
    • new sense of authority to the many who felt justified in expressing religious and political opinions.


A. The French and Indian War

  • A. The French and Indian War

    • 1. Conflict in the Ohio Valley – In the 1750s, French authorities, build a string of defensive forts
    • military expedition led by George Washington to reassert British claims
    • international incident that prompted Virginian and British expansionists to demand war


2. The Albany Congress – In June 1754, delegates from British colonies met to discuss the Iroquois and French expansion

    • 2. The Albany Congress – In June 1754, delegates from British colonies met to discuss the Iroquois and French expansion
    • Franklin proposed a “Plan of Union” with a continental assembly to manage trade, Indian policy, and defense in the western territories to counter French expansion
    • Franklin’s effort failed; war between France and England imminent.
    • 3. The War Hawks Win – British statesman William Pitt and Lord Halifax in England wanted war in North America with French
    • expanded to Europe by 1756 with Britain vowing to destroy France’s ability to compete economically.


B. The Great War for Empire

  • B. The Great War for Empire

    • 1. The Seven Years’ War (1756–1763)
    • British had stunning successes and acquired Cuba and the Philippines from Spain, French Senegal, Martinique and Guadeloupe
    • The Treaty of Paris of 1763 ending the war gave Britain control of over half of North America, including French Canada.


2. Pontiac’s Rebellion – British acquisitions in North America frightened Native American population - believed that they would lose more territory to American migrants

    • 2. Pontiac’s Rebellion – British acquisitions in North America frightened Native American population - believed that they would lose more territory to American migrants
    • Ottawa chief Pontiac, with a group of loosely affiliated tribes, launched an uprising against the British.
    • Pontiac’s rebellion was put down, the Proclamation of 1763 prohibited white settlement west of the Appalachians


C. British Industrial Growth and the Consumer Revolution

  • C. British Industrial Growth and the Consumer Revolution

    • 1. Resources – Britain had become dominant commercial power in the Atlantic and Indian oceans
    • 1750, it was also becoming the first nation to use manufacturing technology and work discipline to expand output
    • Mechanical power was key to Britain’s Industrial Revolution; artisans designed and built water mills and steam engines that powered a wide array of machines
    • 2. American consumers – Americans were purchasing 30 percent of all British exports
    • mainland colonists exported tobacco, rice, indigo, and wheat
    • profits from exports enabled colonists to buy goods from England



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