A narrative (story in prose or poem) in which the characters and events represent deeper ideas


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A narrative (story in prose or poem) in which the characters and events represent deeper ideas

  • A narrative (story in prose or poem) in which the characters and events represent deeper ideas

  • EXAMPLE

  • Coyote, Fox & Whale

  • “Tortoise and the Hare”

  • Biblical parables (i.e. Good Samaritan)



Repeated consonant sounds at the beginning of words

  • Repeated consonant sounds at the beginning of words

  • EXAMPLES:



an indirect reference, usually to a historical figure or literary character

  • an indirect reference, usually to a historical figure or literary character



When a speaker or writer addresses an absent person, an idea, or an inanimate object

  • When a speaker or writer addresses an absent person, an idea, or an inanimate object

  • EXAMPLE

  • Wilson in Castaway

  • Blue Moon, you saw me standing alone/ Without a dream in my heart/ Without a love of my own” (Lorenz Hart)



A piece of dialogue supposedly not heard by the other actors on the stage (a.k.a. “stage whisper”)

  • A piece of dialogue supposedly not heard by the other actors on the stage (a.k.a. “stage whisper”)

  • EXAMPLES:

  • Saved by the Bell, Scrubs, Ferris Beuller



Repetition of vowel sounds, in stressed syllables

  • Repetition of vowel sounds, in stressed syllables

  • Examples: fleet feet sweep by sleeping geeks

  • That is one pale pear, Sarah!



Rhythm and meter in verse

  • Rhythm and meter in verse

  • EXAMPLE:

  • “It was many and many a year ago,

  • In a kingdom by the sea”

  • ~ “Annabel Lee” by E.A. Poe



A scene (in drama) that ends with lights off for dramatic or comic effect

  • A scene (in drama) that ends with lights off for dramatic or comic effect

  • EXAMPLE

  • Alien Adventure Ride

  • Sopranos final episode cuts to black, leaving it unclear if the main character lived or died



A moment of great intensity, usually the turning point in a story

  • A moment of great intensity, usually the turning point in a story

  • EXAMPLE

  • ~ Horror film-music screeching, on edge of seat

  • ~ Big fight between the good guy and bad guy



Humor used in a serious literary work to relieve tension or heighten emotional impact

  • Humor used in a serious literary work to relieve tension or heighten emotional impact

  • EXAMPLE

  • Fresh Prince

  • Han Solo in Star Wars



Opposition, or struggle, between characters or forces in a work of drama or fiction

  • Opposition, or struggle, between characters or forces in a work of drama or fiction

  • EXAMPLE

    • ~ Batman versus Joker
    • ~ Characters fighting tornadoes in Twister
    • ~ Simba in The Lion King trying to decide whether to go back to his pride


Associations implied by a word beyond its literal meaning (emotions or feelings associated with a word)

  • Associations implied by a word beyond its literal meaning (emotions or feelings associated with a word)

  • EXAMPLE

  • Gold=luxury, riches, wealth

  • Scrawny = negative; Thin = positive



Repetition of consonants or of a consonant pattern, especially at the end of words

  • Repetition of consonants or of a consonant pattern, especially at the end of words

  • Example: I don’t like when you flick my neck, Jack!



unit of verse with two lines in a row that rhyme and have the same meter

  • unit of verse with two lines in a row that rhyme and have the same meter

  • EXAMPLES:

  • So long as men can breathe or eyes can see, So long as lives this, and this gives life to thee.

  • SHAKESPEARE

  • “I have the measles and the mumps,/

  • a gash, a rash, and purple bumps.”

  • SHEL SILVERSTEIN



The direct (dictionary) meaning of a word

  • The direct (dictionary) meaning of a word

  • Gold=yellow shining substance usually found in the form of jewelry

  • Thin & scrawny mean almost the same thing



Pronounced: “Day-new-mah”

  • Pronounced: “Day-new-mah”

  • Events after the climax in which the resolution happens – “unraveling of the knot”

  • EXAMPLE

  • Law & Order-after high speed chase, get the crook & get confession



The manner or style of expressing oneself in language

  • The manner or style of expressing oneself in language

  • EXAMPLE

  • “I reckon we’re fixin’ to go over thar later.”

  • “Eh, Jo, my fren, you like it here, non?”



A literary work in the form of a conversation

  • A literary work in the form of a conversation

  • EXAMPLES

  • Heroes: 2 characters speaking

  • Tony: “Hey, man. What’s going on?

  • Scott: “Not much. We’re on our way to the movies.”



A prose or verse composition intended to be performed by actors

  • A prose or verse composition intended to be performed by actors

  • EXAMPLES:

  • Titanic, Law & Order

  • Romeo and Juliet, The Crucible



The dramatic effect in which the characters in the play are unaware of something the audience/ reader knows

  • The dramatic effect in which the characters in the play are unaware of something the audience/ reader knows

  • EXAMPLES:

  • Any horror movie – you know the murder is in the room, but the character doesn’t

  • Mean Girls – We know Lindsay Lohan & friends are setting up The Plastics, but they don’t know it



A poem or song composed as a lament (praise/ sadness) for a deceased person

  • A poem or song composed as a lament (praise/ sadness) for a deceased person

  • EXAMPLES:

    • “Candle in the Wind” – by Elton John to honor Marilyn Monroe (later used for Princess Diana)
    • “One Sweet Day” – Mariah Carey & Boys 2 Men (about producer David Cole)


in poetry, a rhyme that occurs in the last syllables of verses

  • in poetry, a rhyme that occurs in the last syllables of verses

  • Also called external rhyme

  • EXAMPLE

    • I do not like green eggs and ham
    • I do not like them, Sam I am
    • Seuss


A metaphor that continues into the following sentences. A metaphor developed at great length

  • A metaphor that continues into the following sentences. A metaphor developed at great length

  • .

  • EXAMPLE:

  • Painting – by Megan Sutter, Laura Young, and Sarah Peterson Painting is an untamed bird. You're free to show how you feel without consequence. There's nothing holding you back. Your emotions fly wildly.



Character contrasted with another to emphasize distinctive characteristics

  • Character contrasted with another to emphasize distinctive characteristics

  • EXAMPLES:

  • “SpongeBob”-Squidward & Patrick

  • Han Solo & Luke Skywalker



to give a hint or suggestion beforehand

  • to give a hint or suggestion beforehand

  • EXAMPLE

  • Grinch=show heart too small in beginning-predict will grow in end



Verse with no fixed pattern of rhyme or meter

  • Verse with no fixed pattern of rhyme or meter

  • EXAMPLE:

  • Running through a field of clover, Stop to pick a daffodil I play he loves me, loves me not, The daffy lies, it says he does not love me! Well, what use a daffy When Jimmy gives me roses? -- Flora Launa



A figure of speech in which exaggeration is used for emphasis or effect

  • A figure of speech in which exaggeration is used for emphasis or effect



a meter in poetry -- unrhymed line with 5 iambs (or feet).

  • a meter in poetry -- unrhymed line with 5 iambs (or feet).

  • Iambic means the stress is on the 2nd syllable

  • Pentameter means a line has 5 feet. When Iambic pentameter is read aloud it would follow a beat such as Da-dum Da-dum.

  • EXAMPLE (stressed syllables are in green):

  • “Arise, fair sun, and kill the envious moon” (Romeo and Juliet)



Use of vivid (highly descriptive) language to represent objects, actions or ideas

  • Use of vivid (highly descriptive) language to represent objects, actions or ideas

  • EXAMPLE

  • “The sun rolling high/ Through the sapphire sky”



Rhymes which occur within a line of verse

  • Rhymes which occur within a line of verse

  • EXAMPLE

    • “I may be skinny at times but I'm fat for the rhymes” (Jason Mraz)
    • “You can tell your ma I moved to Arkansas” (Billy Ray Cyrus)


Expressing something different from and often opposite to what is expected

  • Expressing something different from and often opposite to what is expected

  • EXAMPLE

  • When Romeo sees Juliet apparently dead and kills himself, right before she wakes up



Category of poetry that expresses thoughts and feelings, often in a song

  • Category of poetry that expresses thoughts and feelings, often in a song

  • EXAMPLE

  • Words of a song



A figure of speech in which two unlike things are compared; one is used as a symbol of another

  • A figure of speech in which two unlike things are compared; one is used as a symbol of another

  • EXAMPLE

  • A comfortable sofa is fertile soil for the couch potato.



A long speech given onstage, within the hearing of other characters

  • A long speech given onstage, within the hearing of other characters

  • EXAMPLE



Use of words to imitate sound

  • Use of words to imitate sound

  • EXAMPLE

    • Buzz, Hum, Click


A phrase in which words that seem to be opposites are used together

  • A phrase in which words that seem to be opposites are used together



A statement that seems to contradict itself but expresses a truth

  • A statement that seems to contradict itself but expresses a truth

  • EXAMPLES:

  • “Nobody goes to that restaurant anymore. It’s too crowded.” ~ Yogi Berra

  • “What a pity that youth must be wasted on the young” - George Bernard Shaw



restatement of text in other words



a.k.a. Slant Rhyme, off rhyme, half rhyme, near rhyme, approximate rhyme

  • a.k.a. Slant Rhyme, off rhyme, half rhyme, near rhyme, approximate rhyme

  • A partial or imperfect rhyme, often using assonance or consonance only.

  • EXAMPLES:

  • I eat filet mignon, and I’m nice and young.” ~ Ciara

  • “All those teenage dreams of rapping, Writing rhymes on napkins, Was really visualization, making this here actually happen

  • ~ Talib Kweli



Figure of speech in which inanimate objects or ideas are given human qualities

  • Figure of speech in which inanimate objects or ideas are given human qualities

  • EXAMPLE:

  • “The wind stood up and gave a shout. He whistled on his two fingers.”

  • JAMES STEVENS



pattern of events or main story in a narrative or drama

  • pattern of events or main story in a narrative or drama

  • Includes: exposition, rising action, climax, falling action, resolution



a phrase or verse repeated throughout a song or poem (in song, it’s called a chorus)

  • a phrase or verse repeated throughout a song or poem (in song, it’s called a chorus)

  • EXAMPLE:

  • "All the lonely people, where do they all come from? All the lonely people, where do they all belong?"

  • ~ Beatles, “Eleanor Rigby”



Use of repeated words or phrases for literary effect

  • Use of repeated words or phrases for literary effect

  • EXAMPLE:

  • T. S. Eliot's "Ash-Wednesday":

  • Because I do not hope to turn again Because I do not hope Because I do not hope to turn....



Similarity of ending sounds of words or lines of verse

  • Similarity of ending sounds of words or lines of verse



Series of events that lead to the climax, usually conflicts or struggles of the protagonist (main character)

  • Series of events that lead to the climax, usually conflicts or struggles of the protagonist (main character)

  • EXAMPLE

  • Police shows – evidence is being collected

  • * Most of the story happens in the rising action*



Time & place in which a narrative, drama, or film takes place

  • Time & place in which a narrative, drama, or film takes place

  • EXAMPLE

  • Sound of Music –Austria during WWII



Figure of speech in which two unlike things are compared using “like” or “as” or “than”

  • Figure of speech in which two unlike things are compared using “like” or “as” or “than”



Speech given onstage in which a character reveals his or her thoughts when alone or unaware of the presence of other characters.

  • Speech given onstage in which a character reveals his or her thoughts when alone or unaware of the presence of other characters.

  • EXAMPLE

  • To be or not to be, that is the question — Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune, Or to take arms against a sea of troubles, And by opposing, end them. To die, to sleep

  • Shakespeare (Hamlet)



A 14 line form having a specific meter and rhyme schemes

  • A 14 line form having a specific meter and rhyme schemes

  • EXAMPLE

  •   Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day?   Thou art more lovely and more temperate:   Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,   And summer’s lease hath all to short a date:   Sometime too hot the eye of heaven shines,   And often is his gold complexion dimm’d:   And every fair from fair sometime declines,   By chance, or nature’s changing course, untrimm’d.   By thy eternal summer shall not fade   Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest;   Nor shall Death brag thou wandered in his shade,   When in eternal lines to time thou growest:   So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see,   So long lives this, and this gives life to thee. SHAKESPEARE



One who delivers a public address

  • One who delivers a public address

  • Also, the narrator of a poem or story

  • EXAMPLE:

  • Martin Luther King, Jr.



Part of the script of a play that tells actors how they are to move or to speak their lines.

  • Part of the script of a play that tells actors how they are to move or to speak their lines.

  • EXAMPLES:

  • Enter, exit, and exeunt

  • [sadly], [with conviction]



A division of a poem or song (called a verse in song)

  • A division of a poem or song (called a verse in song)

  • Similar to paragraphs in prose writing



Something that represents something else (often a physical object representing a person or idea)

  • Something that represents something else (often a physical object representing a person or idea)

  • EXAMPLES:

  • Lion = courage

  • Owl = wisdom



The central meaning or strongest idea in a work of literature

  • The central meaning or strongest idea in a work of literature

  • EXAMPLES:

  • “All is not what it seems to be”

  • Isolation from others



Manner of expression in speech or writing – reveals the author’s attitudes toward his/her subject

  • Manner of expression in speech or writing – reveals the author’s attitudes toward his/her subject

  • EXAMPLES:

  • Respectful (or not)

  • Sympathetic (or not)



Standard language spoken of a country or locality, a.k.a. slang, “everyday” language

  • Standard language spoken of a country or locality, a.k.a. slang, “everyday” language

  • EXAMPLE:

  • “They’ve gone up the road a piece.”

  • “You want I should do it for you?”



Distinctive style of an author or of character in a book – what makes an author or speaker unique

  • Distinctive style of an author or of character in a book – what makes an author or speaker unique

  • EXAMPLE:

  • An author may use short sentences, description, everyday language, or figures of speech




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