“A volcano is a burning mountain from whose top comes smoke and fire.”


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Sana04.04.2018
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“A volcano is a burning mountain from whose top comes smoke and fire.”

  • “A volcano is a burning mountain from whose top comes smoke and fire.”

  • or this one:

  • “A volcano is a cone-shaped mountain and at the top you can see the creator smoking.”

  • [once this was someone’s answer on a test…….crater = creator ?]



“Dormant volcanoes may show sins of steam, but extinct volcanoes show no sins of life.” [meant to say “signs”]

  • “Dormant volcanoes may show sins of steam, but extinct volcanoes show no sins of life.” [meant to say “signs”]

  • “Lava flows run fast. They are very vicious.” [meant “viscous”[

  • My favorite: “Cascade volcanoes were created primarily by the seduction of the Pacific Ocean plate.” [meant “subduction”]



Burning - no



A volcano :

  • A volcano :

  • Is the place or opening from which molten rock and gases issue from beneath the earth’s interior onto the surface, and

  • The hill or mountain built up around the opening by accumulation of the rock materials.



We could say a volcano is always a liquid rock plumbing system which extends from several 10's of kilometers depth up to the earth's surface, and includes the near- vent deposits of eruptions.

  • We could say a volcano is always a liquid rock plumbing system which extends from several 10's of kilometers depth up to the earth's surface, and includes the near- vent deposits of eruptions.

  • But then it quickly gets more interesting…….



Is this a volcano?

  • Is this a volcano?

  • Ice volcanoes commonly occur during the winter months along the north shore of Lake Superior. Cones begin to form at the leading edge of the ice shelf as it builds out into the lake. When the waves, driven by strong onshore winds, feel bottom they build and break onto the ice shelf. After the ice shelf has built out, waves continue to travel underneath the ice and are forced up through cracks and previously formed cones.” The water freezes into a cone-shaped “volcano”.http://www.geo.mtu.edu/volcanoes/ice/



How about this?

  • How about this?

  • Piparo is a mud volcano in Trinidad.

  • “The term "mud-volcano" generally is applied to a more or less violent eruption or surface extrusion of watery mud or clay which almost invariably is accompanied by methane gas, and which commonly tends to build up a solid mud or clay deposit around its orifice which may have a conical or volcano-like shape.” http://www.gstt.org/teaching/mud%20volcanoes.htm











Frazil ice in Yosemite National Park, CA

  • Frazil ice in Yosemite National Park, CA















Lava flows: Kilauea (300 homes destroyed)

  • Lava flows: Kilauea (300 homes destroyed)

  • Pyroclastic flows and surges: Mont Pelee, 1902 (28,000 killed)

  • Ash fall: Pinatubo; Eyjafjallajökull

  • Debris avalanches: Mt. St. Helens; Shasta

  • Lahars: Mt. Rainier; Nevado del Ruiz (23,000 killed)

  • Gas: Lake Nyos, 1986 (1700 killed from CO2)

  • Tsunamis: Krakatau, 1883 (36,000 killed)



This flow buried the store in Kalapana, Hawaii. Images are on April 23, June 6, and June 13 1990.

  • This flow buried the store in Kalapana, Hawaii. Images are on April 23, June 6, and June 13 1990.







































Here’s the list again

  • Here’s the list again

  • Lava flows

  • Gas

  • Ash fall

  • Pyroclastic flow

  • Lahars (mudflows)

  • Debris avalanches







































Caribbean island of Martinique.

  • Caribbean island of Martinique.

  • May 8, 1902 explosive eruption.

  • Searing gas and ash of a pyroclastic flow killed all but two of the 28,000 inhabitants of St. Pierre.









Soufrière Hills Volcano had given warning…

  • Soufrière Hills Volcano had given warning…

  • Which HAD BEEN properly interpreted by volcanologists…

  • So that Plymouth had been evacuated….

  • Saving thousands of lives.

  • Montserrat image



You have learned about most of these hazards.

  • You have learned about most of these hazards.

  • As we study a few of the individual Cascade volcanoes, ask:

    • Are any hazards especially prominent?
    • Are any hazards likely to be rare or absent?





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