Alfred Nobel was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden, into a family of engineers


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Alfred Nobel was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden, into a family of engineers.

  • Alfred Nobel was born on 21 October 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden, into a family of engineers.

  • He was a chemist, engineer, and inventor.

  • The will of the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, established the prizes in 1895. In 1888, Alfred was astonished to read his own obituary, titled ‘The merchant of death is dead’, in a French newspaper.







The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1902 was awarded to Emil Fischer “in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses’’ (1898).

  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1902 was awarded to Emil Fischer “in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses’’ (1898).



  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908 was awarded jointly to Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov and Paul Ehrlich in recognition of their work on immunity (1882).



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1910 was awarded to Albrecht Kossel "in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances" (1896).

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1910 was awarded to Albrecht Kossel "in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances" (1896).



  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1923 was awarded jointly to Frederick Grant Banting and John James Rickard Macleod "for the discovery of insulin” (1916).



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1924 was awarded to Willem Einthoven for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram (1903).

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1924 was awarded to Willem Einthoven for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram (1903).

  • Father of electrocardiography



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930 was awarded to Karl Landsteiner "for his discovery of human blood groups” (1900).

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930 was awarded to Karl Landsteiner "for his discovery of human blood groups” (1900).



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1933 was awarded to Thomas H. Morgan "for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity"  (1910).

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1933 was awarded to Thomas H. Morgan "for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity"  (1910).



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1946 was awarded to Hermann J. Muller "for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation” (1926).

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1946 was awarded to Hermann J. Muller "for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation” (1926).



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953 was divided equally between Hans Adolf Krebs "for his discovery of the citric acid cycle" and Fritz Albert Lipmann "for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism” (1930).

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953 was divided equally between Hans Adolf Krebs "for his discovery of the citric acid cycle" and Fritz Albert Lipmann "for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism” (1930).



  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1957 was awarded to Lord Todd "for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes” (1949).



  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1958 was awarded to Frederick Sanger "for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin" (1945).



  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958 was divided, one half jointly to George Wells Beadle and Edward Lawrie Tatum "for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events" and the other half to Joshua Lederberg "for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria". (1951)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959 was awarded jointly to Severo Ochoa and Arthur Kornberg "for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid (1956).

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959 was awarded jointly to Severo Ochoa and Arthur Kornberg "for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid (1956).

  • A scientist shouldn't be asked to judge the economic and moral value of his work. All we should ask the scientist to do is find the truth-and then not keep it from anyone. Arthur Kornberg quotes 



  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962 was awarded jointly to Francis Harry Compton Crick, James Dewey Watson and Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins "for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material” (1953).



The 1962 Nobel prize in Chemistry was divided equally between: Perutz and Kendrew, Great Britain, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge "for their studies of the structures of globular proteins".

  • The 1962 Nobel prize in Chemistry was divided equally between: Perutz and Kendrew, Great Britain, Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge "for their studies of the structures of globular proteins".



  • The 1964 Nobel prize in Chemistry was awarded to HODGKIN, DOROTHY CROWFOOT, "for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances".



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965 was awarded jointly to François Jacob, André Lwoff and Jacques Monod "for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis" (1961).

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965 was awarded jointly to François Jacob, André Lwoff and Jacques Monod "for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis" (1961).



  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968 was awarded jointly to Robert W. Holley, Har Gobind Khorana and Marshall W. Nirenberg "for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis’’ (1961)



  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969 was awarded jointly to Max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey and Salvador E. Luria "for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses“(1952).





The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1971 was awarded to Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. "for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones“(1953).

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1971 was awarded to Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. "for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones“(1953).



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972 was awarded jointly to Gerald M. Edelman and Rodney R. Porter "for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies“ (1960).

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972 was awarded jointly to Gerald M. Edelman and Rodney R. Porter "for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies“ (1960).



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972 was divided, one half awarded to Christian B. Anfinsen "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation", the other half jointly to Stanford Moore and William H. Stein "for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule". (1962)

  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972 was divided, one half awarded to Christian B. Anfinsen "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation", the other half jointly to Stanford Moore and William H. Stein "for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule". (1962)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974 was awarded jointly to Albert Claude, Christian de Duve and George E. Palade "for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell".

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974 was awarded jointly to Albert Claude, Christian de Duve and George E. Palade "for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell".



  • George Emil Palade (November 19, 1912 – October 8, 2008) was a Romanian cell biologist. Described as "the most influential cell biologist ever”.

  • The prize was granted for his innovations in electron microscopy and cell fractionation which together laid the foundations of modern molecular cell biology, the most notable discovery being the ribosomes of the endoplasmic reticulum – which he first described in 1955.

  • Palade also received the U.S. National Medal of Science in Biological Sciences for "pioneering discoveries of a host of fundamental, highly organized structures in living cells" in 1986, and was previously elected a Member of the US National Academy of Science in 1961.



  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975 was awarded jointly to David Baltimore, Renato Dulbecco and Howard Martin Temin "for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell". (1968)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977 was divided, one half jointly to Roger Guillemin and Andrew V. Schally "for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain" and the other half to Rosalyn Yalow "for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones". (1950)

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977 was divided, one half jointly to Roger Guillemin and Andrew V. Schally "for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain" and the other half to Rosalyn Yalow "for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones". (1950)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978 was awarded jointly to Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. Smith "for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics".1970

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978 was awarded jointly to Werner Arber, Daniel Nathans and Hamilton O. Smith "for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics".1970



  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1980 was divided, one half awarded to Paul Berg "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA", the other half jointly to Walter Gilbert and Frederick Sanger "for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids“ (1972).



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1982 was awarded to Aaron Klug "for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes". (1978)

  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1982 was awarded to Aaron Klug "for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes". (1978)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1983 was awarded to Barbara McClintock "for her discovery of mobile genetic elements". 1948

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1983 was awarded to Barbara McClintock "for her discovery of mobile genetic elements". 1948



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984 was awarded jointly to Niels K. Jerne, Georges J.F. Köhler and César Milstein "for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies". 1975

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984 was awarded jointly to Niels K. Jerne, Georges J.F. Köhler and César Milstein "for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies". 1975



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986 was awarded jointly to Stanley Cohen and Rita Levi-Montalcini "for their discoveries of growth factors"

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986 was awarded jointly to Stanley Cohen and Rita Levi-Montalcini "for their discoveries of growth factors"



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989 was awarded jointly to J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus "for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes“ 1976

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989 was awarded jointly to J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus "for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes“ 1976



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1989 was awarded jointly to Sidney Altman and Thomas R. Cech "for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA”1980.

  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1989 was awarded jointly to Sidney Altman and Thomas R. Cech "for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA”1980.



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1990 was awarded jointly to Joseph E. Murray and E. Donnall Thomas "for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1990 was awarded jointly to Joseph E. Murray and E. Donnall Thomas "for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1991 was awarded jointly to Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann "for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells“ 1970

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1991 was awarded jointly to Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann "for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells“ 1970



  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1991 was awarded to Richard R. Ernst "for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy".



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992 was awarded jointly to Edmond H. Fischer and Edwin G. Krebs "for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992 was awarded jointly to Edmond H. Fischer and Edwin G. Krebs "for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1993 was awarded jointly to Richard J. Roberts and Phillip A. Sharp "for their discoveries of split genes. 1978

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1993 was awarded jointly to Richard J. Roberts and Phillip A. Sharp "for their discoveries of split genes. 1978



  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1993 was awarded "for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry" jointly with one half to Kary B. Mullis "for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method" and with one half to Michael Smith "for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies".



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994 was awarded jointly to Alfred G. Gilman and Martin Rodbell "for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994 was awarded jointly to Alfred G. Gilman and Martin Rodbell "for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"



  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995 was awarded jointly to Edward B. Lewis, Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard and Eric F. Wieschaus "for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development".



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1997 was awarded to Stanley B. Prusiner "for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection". 1982.

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1997 was awarded to Stanley B. Prusiner "for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection". 1982.



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998 was awarded jointly to Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro and Ferid Murad "for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system".

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998 was awarded jointly to Robert F. Furchgott, Louis J. Ignarro and Ferid Murad "for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system".



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1999 was awarded to Gunter Blobel "for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell".1990

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1999 was awarded to Gunter Blobel "for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell".1990



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000 was awarded jointly to Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard and Eric R. Kandel "for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system and dopamine".

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000 was awarded jointly to Arvid Carlsson, Paul Greengard and Eric R. Kandel "for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system and dopamine".



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001 was awarded jointly to Leland H. Hartwell, Tim Hunt and Sir Paul M. Nurse "for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle".

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001 was awarded jointly to Leland H. Hartwell, Tim Hunt and Sir Paul M. Nurse "for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle".



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002 was awarded jointly to Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz and John E. Sulston "for their discoveries concerning 'genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'".

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002 was awarded jointly to Sydney Brenner, H. Robert Horvitz and John E. Sulston "for their discoveries concerning 'genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'".



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002 was awarded "for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules" with one half jointly to John B. Fenn and Koichi Tanaka "for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules" and the other half to Kurt Wüthrich "for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution".

  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002 was awarded "for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules" with one half jointly to John B. Fenn and Koichi Tanaka "for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules" and the other half to Kurt Wüthrich "for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution".



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003 was awarded jointly to Paul C. Lauterbur and Sir Peter Mansfield "for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003 was awarded jointly to Paul C. Lauterbur and Sir Peter Mansfield "for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006 was awarded jointly to Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello "for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA“ 1998

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006 was awarded jointly to Andrew Z. Fire and Craig C. Mello "for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA“ 1998



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006 was awarded to Roger D. Kornberg "for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription".

  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006 was awarded to Roger D. Kornberg "for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription".



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007 was awarded jointly to Mario R. Capecchi, Sir Martin J. Evans and Oliver Smithies "for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells".

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007 was awarded jointly to Mario R. Capecchi, Sir Martin J. Evans and Oliver Smithies "for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells".



  • The Nobel Peace Prize 2007 was awarded jointly to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and Albert Arnold (Al) Gore Jr. "for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change" .



The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific intergovernmental body first established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and later endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly.

  • The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific intergovernmental body first established in 1988 by two United Nations organizations, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and later endorsed by the United Nations General Assembly.

  • mission is to provide comprehensive scientific assessments of current scientific, technical and socio-economic information worldwide about the risk of climate change caused by human activity, its potential environmental and socio-economic consequences, and possible options for adapting to these consequences or mitigating the effects.

  • It is chaired by Rajendra K. Pachauri. this involves the governments of more than 120 countries.

  • A main activity of the IPCC is publishing special reports on topics relevant to the implementation of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), an international treaty that acknowledges the possibility of harmful climate change.

  • Website www.ipcc.ch



  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008 was divided, one half awarded to Harald zur Hausen "for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer", the other half jointly to Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier "for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus".



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008 was awarded jointly to Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Y. Tsien "for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP". 1996.

  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008 was awarded jointly to Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Y. Tsien "for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP". 1996.



  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009 was awarded jointly to Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider and Jack W. Szostak "for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase".



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009 was awarded jointly to Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas A. Steitz and Ada E. Yonath "for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome".

  • The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009 was awarded jointly to Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas A. Steitz and Ada E. Yonath "for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome".



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2010 was awarded to Robert G. Edwards "for the development of in vitro fertilization".

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2010 was awarded to Robert G. Edwards "for the development of in vitro fertilization".

  • British physiologist and pioneer in reproductive medicine and in-vitro fertilisation (IVF) .



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011 was divided, one half jointly to Bruce A. Beutler and Jules A. Hoffmann "for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity" and the other half to Ralph M. Steinman "for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity".

  • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011 was divided, one half jointly to Bruce A. Beutler and Jules A. Hoffmann "for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity" and the other half to Ralph M. Steinman "for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity".








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