And in different periods of time there were people, who served the country, protecting its interests


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Russia has had a Customs Service in some form for the past 1000 years. Moreover, for almost all of that history, it has been much more than a force for keeping out contraband.

  • Russia has had a Customs Service in some form for the past 1000 years. Moreover, for almost all of that history, it has been much more than a force for keeping out contraband.



And in different periods of time there were people, who served the country, protecting its interests.

  • And in different periods of time there were people, who served the country, protecting its interests.



























Shuvalov was a famous Russian statesman. He began his career as a page in the court of tsesarevna Elizabeth. Later he was appointed a senator and became a count in 1746.

  • Shuvalov was a famous Russian statesman. He began his career as a page in the court of tsesarevna Elizabeth. Later he was appointed a senator and became a count in 1746.



Initially, he was in charge of an army division. He also held the post of a conference minister. He improved the Russian artillery and built a few weapons factories.

  • Initially, he was in charge of an army division. He also held the post of a conference minister. He improved the Russian artillery and built a few weapons factories.



He enjoyed unlimited power throughout the reign of Elizabeth. Almost no single affair of the state was to be taken care of without Shuvalov, especially those pertaining to national economy.

  • He enjoyed unlimited power throughout the reign of Elizabeth. Almost no single affair of the state was to be taken care of without Shuvalov, especially those pertaining to national economy.



In 1753 Shuvalov presented before the Governing Senate a project to eliminate internal customs offices and outposts by increasing tariffs on imported goods instead.

  • In 1753 Shuvalov presented before the Governing Senate a project to eliminate internal customs offices and outposts by increasing tariffs on imported goods instead.



In this statute he offered to eliminate customs duties on transportation of bread throughout the territory of Russia. In December 1753 his project was approved by Elizabeth.

  • In this statute he offered to eliminate customs duties on transportation of bread throughout the territory of Russia. In December 1753 his project was approved by Elizabeth.

  • In 1754 Shuvalov was appointed the head of the Commission and he created new laws of the Russian Empire.



Internal customs borders were eliminated and in 1755 a new customs statute worked out by Shuvalov was adopted. In accordance with this statute foreign merchants who brought goods from abroad had a year deferment in paying duties for their goods.

  • Internal customs borders were eliminated and in 1755 a new customs statute worked out by Shuvalov was adopted. In accordance with this statute foreign merchants who brought goods from abroad had a year deferment in paying duties for their goods.



Shuvalov wanted to create favorable conditions for the development of trade and industry in Russia, eliminating various kinds of restrictions for merchants. In the middle of the 18-th century customs business in Russia became centralized and was carried out in accordance with a united customs policy.

  • Shuvalov wanted to create favorable conditions for the development of trade and industry in Russia, eliminating various kinds of restrictions for merchants. In the middle of the 18-th century customs business in Russia became centralized and was carried out in accordance with a united customs policy.





The customs policy and customs business in Russia have always been a subject of a particular attention of the crowned persons and governments. Therefore, all customs charters, tariffs and decrees concerning the creation of customs bodies received validity and were left to the first persons of the state.

  • The customs policy and customs business in Russia have always been a subject of a particular attention of the crowned persons and governments. Therefore, all customs charters, tariffs and decrees concerning the creation of customs bodies received validity and were left to the first persons of the state.



Economic views of the great Russian scientist Michael Vasilievich Lomonosov occupy an important place in the history of the Russian economic thought. Numerous facts tell us about his interest to the history of economic ideas. He supported the edition of the Russian economic newspaper. He published “The Economic Dictionary of Russian Products”.

  • Economic views of the great Russian scientist Michael Vasilievich Lomonosov occupy an important place in the history of the Russian economic thought. Numerous facts tell us about his interest to the history of economic ideas. He supported the edition of the Russian economic newspaper. He published “The Economic Dictionary of Russian Products”.



Lomonosov is also considered to be the founder of the economic statistics in Russia. His “Atlas of Russia” is an academic questionnaire on separate parts of Russia and the country as a whole.

  • Lomonosov is also considered to be the founder of the economic statistics in Russia. His “Atlas of Russia” is an academic questionnaire on separate parts of Russia and the country as a whole.



His ideas influenced the economic policy of the country. As a result, the protectionist tariff was introduced in 1724. The creation of the merchant marine fleet and sea navigation also promoted the transformation of Russia into a powerful trading state.

  • His ideas influenced the economic policy of the country. As a result, the protectionist tariff was introduced in 1724. The creation of the merchant marine fleet and sea navigation also promoted the transformation of Russia into a powerful trading state.







Tengeborgsky was one of the greatest Russian economists and statesmen. He was born in 1793 and had a successful career. In 1828 he was appointed Consul General in Dantsig, helped to found Kruckov Republic, and had negotiations with the Austrian Government which resulted in the sea convention between Russia and Austria.

  • Tengeborgsky was one of the greatest Russian economists and statesmen. He was born in 1793 and had a successful career. In 1828 he was appointed Consul General in Dantsig, helped to found Kruckov Republic, and had negotiations with the Austrian Government which resulted in the sea convention between Russia and Austria.







He wrote a lot of scientific works in which he compared financial systems of different countries, and his works on statistics were considered to be the best of his time.

  • He wrote a lot of scientific works in which he compared financial systems of different countries, and his works on statistics were considered to be the best of his time.









As a result, the development of the Russian industry increased foreign economic connections and the state budget.

  • As a result, the development of the Russian industry increased foreign economic connections and the state budget.





A. N. Radishchev was born in a family of a wealthy landowner. He received an excellent education in St. Petersburg. As one of a few students showing outstanding academic achievements, he was sent by Catharine II to study law at Leipzig University in Germany (1766)

  • A. N. Radishchev was born in a family of a wealthy landowner. He received an excellent education in St. Petersburg. As one of a few students showing outstanding academic achievements, he was sent by Catharine II to study law at Leipzig University in Germany (1766)



In 1771 Radishchev came back to St. Petersburg and started his career. By the way for the years spent in Germany he had absolutely forgotten his mother tongue.

  • In 1771 Radishchev came back to St. Petersburg and started his career. By the way for the years spent in Germany he had absolutely forgotten his mother tongue.



While being engaged in the state service in the Senate Alexander Nicolayevich showed himself to be an honest, responsible and uncorrupted person. That is why in 1788 he was offered the position of Deputy Head of St. Petersburg customs. All customs management was carried out by him personally.

  • While being engaged in the state service in the Senate Alexander Nicolayevich showed himself to be an honest, responsible and uncorrupted person. That is why in 1788 he was offered the position of Deputy Head of St. Petersburg customs. All customs management was carried out by him personally.



As Deputy Head of St. Petersburg customs Radishchev was in constant touch with British customs officials. It gave him a great opportunity to learn English so well that he spoke it fluently and even read English classics in the original.

  • As Deputy Head of St. Petersburg customs Radishchev was in constant touch with British customs officials. It gave him a great opportunity to learn English so well that he spoke it fluently and even read English classics in the original.



In 1789 the Russian economic suffered from the financial crisis caused by the Russian-Turkish war. To encourage the economic of the country Radishchev developed the project on temporary prohibition of luxury goods import to Russia.

  • In 1789 the Russian economic suffered from the financial crisis caused by the Russian-Turkish war. To encourage the economic of the country Radishchev developed the project on temporary prohibition of luxury goods import to Russia.



In 1790 A.N. Radishchev was appointed the head of St. Petersburg customs. In this period of time he wrote “The project of new general customs duties”.

  • In 1790 A.N. Radishchev was appointed the head of St. Petersburg customs. In this period of time he wrote “The project of new general customs duties”.





Cancrin Yegor Frantsievich was a famous statesman and Finance Minister of Russia from 1823 to 1844.

  • Cancrin Yegor Frantsievich was a famous statesman and Finance Minister of Russia from 1823 to 1844.

  • He was born in 1774 in Hanau. His father, Franz Ludvig von Cancrin, had salt factories in Russia. In 1797 Yegor came to Russia and joined the imperial service. He was appointed the Minister of Finance of Russia and held office for 21 years.



He made a great contribution to the development of Russia, carried out some customs reforms, supporting protectionist policy of the state. He revised the tariff systems several times.

  • He made a great contribution to the development of Russia, carried out some customs reforms, supporting protectionist policy of the state. He revised the tariff systems several times.



His attitude towards the tariff enacted in 1819 was negative, but he supported the tariff of 1822, though considering some duty rates too high, and changed the rates of some of them.

  • His attitude towards the tariff enacted in 1819 was negative, but he supported the tariff of 1822, though considering some duty rates too high, and changed the rates of some of them.



Changes in duty rates were accompanied by the development of the Russian industry and the state budget income increased.

  • Changes in duty rates were accompanied by the development of the Russian industry and the state budget income increased.

  • His tariff of 1826 encouraged sugar production in Russia.



Trying to develop Russian industry, Cancrin organized a Board of Manufactures, arranged industrial exhibitions in Russia, established the St. Petersburg Institute of Technology, and promoted mining industry.

  • Trying to develop Russian industry, Cancrin organized a Board of Manufactures, arranged industrial exhibitions in Russia, established the St. Petersburg Institute of Technology, and promoted mining industry.



He changed the system of taxation and introduced excise for tobacco.

  • He changed the system of taxation and introduced excise for tobacco.

  • State budget of that time suffered from lack of money. He managed to improve the situation and decreased the debt.



In spite of the fact that his activity had a lot of contradictions and he didn’t have radical reforms, it had a very practical approach. But he couldn’t overcome the backwardness of the country.

  • In spite of the fact that his activity had a lot of contradictions and he didn’t have radical reforms, it had a very practical approach. But he couldn’t overcome the backwardness of the country.





Dmitry Obolensky was born on October 26, 1822 in Saint-Petersburg.

  • Dmitry Obolensky was born on October 26, 1822 in Saint-Petersburg.

  • His father Alexander Petrovich Obolensky was a senator.

  • In 1842 Dmitry finished Law School.



On June 28, 1863 Obolensky was appointed the Director of the Department of Customs Charges by the Highest Decree.

  • On June 28, 1863 Obolensky was appointed the Director of the Department of Customs Charges by the Highest Decree.



He was at the head of the Department of Customs charges for seven years, showing great abilities and energy. It took him 3 years to transform the whole department by reappointing staff members and introducing new ideas and new concepts.

  • He was at the head of the Department of Customs charges for seven years, showing great abilities and energy. It took him 3 years to transform the whole department by reappointing staff members and introducing new ideas and new concepts.



In 1863 he was a member of the commission founded by the Ministry of Finance to revise the system of tax collection.

  • In 1863 he was a member of the commission founded by the Ministry of Finance to revise the system of tax collection.



For his service and achievements he received many awards. The Order of St. Stanislav is only one of them. He received this Order in 1859.

  • For his service and achievements he received many awards. The Order of St. Stanislav is only one of them. He received this Order in 1859.



For his service at the Department of Customs Charges he was awarded with the Order of St. Anna in 1864.

  • For his service at the Department of Customs Charges he was awarded with the Order of St. Anna in 1864.





The participation of Dmitry Mendeleyev in the development and realization of the customs-tariff policy of Russia still remains one of the least studied areas of his scientific activities. Meanwhile, the scientist considered his work to be one of his three services to Motherland, along with his work in the area of natural science and his teaching activity.

  • The participation of Dmitry Mendeleyev in the development and realization of the customs-tariff policy of Russia still remains one of the least studied areas of his scientific activities. Meanwhile, the scientist considered his work to be one of his three services to Motherland, along with his work in the area of natural science and his teaching activity.



In September 1889 finance minister I.A. Vyshnegradski asked Mendeleyev to develop a new customs tariff. This tariff influenced national business and trade. His contemporaries named the tariff of 1891 «mendeleyevsky».

  • In September 1889 finance minister I.A. Vyshnegradski asked Mendeleyev to develop a new customs tariff. This tariff influenced national business and trade. His contemporaries named the tariff of 1891 «mendeleyevsky».



But in 1892 another customs tariff was introduced. It is the main work of Mendeleyev on this problem. A wide range of the used sources and systematization made this tariff the original economic encyclopedia of Russia.

  • But in 1892 another customs tariff was introduced. It is the main work of Mendeleyev on this problem. A wide range of the used sources and systematization made this tariff the original economic encyclopedia of Russia.

  • The scientist came to the conclusion, that only the tariff, in which every kind and sort of commodities is discussed individually, can be considered to be the perfect one.



Developing the tariff, according to his opinion, it is necessary to take into consideration 2 important things:

  • Developing the tariff, according to his opinion, it is necessary to take into consideration 2 important things:

  • a customs tariff will always be the matter of time, terms and circumstances of the country for which it was created;

  • a tariff will give effective results only when it is set firmly.



Years passed after 1891 have shown the rightness of the selected course in the customs policy:

  • Years passed after 1891 have shown the rightness of the selected course in the customs policy:

  • the tariff did not decrease the import;

  • customs profits grew;

  • the total revenues of the state grew together with the customs profits.

  • The scientist also participated in the development of the customs tariff of 1903.





During the Great Patriotic War the work of customs officers was connected to a constant risk. It demanded special professionalism, vigilance and courage.

  • During the Great Patriotic War the work of customs officers was connected to a constant risk. It demanded special professionalism, vigilance and courage.

  • On September 1, 1941 37 customs and customs posts were operating. Their staff totaled 318 people, their administration totaled only 37 people. By the beginning of 1945 not more than 1000 people had worked at the customs of the USSR.



The basic direction of the work of customs establishments in the wartime was to control cargoes entering the country from England, Canada, the USA and other allied and neutral countries. Cargoes sent by the International Red Cross were also subject to customs control.

  • The basic direction of the work of customs establishments in the wartime was to control cargoes entering the country from England, Canada, the USA and other allied and neutral countries. Cargoes sent by the International Red Cross were also subject to customs control.



At the beginning of the war most of the customs staff joined the army and the guerrilla movement. Only Murmansk, Arkhangelsk, Vladivostok, Baku customs posts continued their activity. The activity of all other customs of the Soviet Union was stopped.

  • At the beginning of the war most of the customs staff joined the army and the guerrilla movement. Only Murmansk, Arkhangelsk, Vladivostok, Baku customs posts continued their activity. The activity of all other customs of the Soviet Union was stopped.



Murmansk and Arkhangelsk customs during the Great Patriotic war became the main posts of the whole customs system of the country. (Their chiefs were Sokolinsky R.V. and Petrov В.А accordingly).

  • Murmansk and Arkhangelsk customs during the Great Patriotic war became the main posts of the whole customs system of the country. (Their chiefs were Sokolinsky R.V. and Petrov В.А accordingly).



For courage and heroism shown during the Great Patriotic War customs officers were awarded with orders and medals.

  • For courage and heroism shown during the Great Patriotic War customs officers were awarded with orders and medals.

  • Many of them were awarded posthumously.

  • These people served our motherland, they did everything to execute the duty, they brought huge benefit to people. Their heroic deeds will remain in our hearts and become an example for all future generations of customs officers.





The head of the Central Administrative Board of the Customs Control in the late 1980-s.

  • The head of the Central Administrative Board of the Customs Control in the late 1980-s.

  • Boyarov was born in 1928. His career is connected with the state service. He worked for the Committee of the National Security and for the Intelligence Service. He is a lawyer by education.



In 1987 he was appointed the head of the Central Administrative Board of the Customs Control.

  • In 1987 he was appointed the head of the Central Administrative Board of the Customs Control.



In the 80-s the Customs Administration was a part of the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Boyarov wanted it to become an independent body. This process started only in 1985 and the Central Administrative Board of Customs Control was established.

  • In the 80-s the Customs Administration was a part of the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Boyarov wanted it to become an independent body. This process started only in 1985 and the Central Administrative Board of Customs Control was established.



During the period of customs reforms the traffic of smuggling greatly increased. There were many participants of foreign economic activity who violated customs rules while transporting goods. Customs Authorities could not provide proper customs control of the cargo and goods carried through the customs border of Russia.

  • During the period of customs reforms the traffic of smuggling greatly increased. There were many participants of foreign economic activity who violated customs rules while transporting goods. Customs Authorities could not provide proper customs control of the cargo and goods carried through the customs border of Russia.



Boyarov created a system designed to struggle against smuggling of drugs using controlled delivery. In addition, he offered to cooperate in the fight against drug smuggling with law enforcement agencies of different countries.

  • Boyarov created a system designed to struggle against smuggling of drugs using controlled delivery. In addition, he offered to cooperate in the fight against drug smuggling with law enforcement agencies of different countries.



While establishing the Customs Service of Russia, Boyarov always paid a lot of attention to people. He found many talented people and brought up a new generation of customs managers.

  • While establishing the Customs Service of Russia, Boyarov always paid a lot of attention to people. He found many talented people and brought up a new generation of customs managers.



Now he is the head of the Fund of Customs Service veterans and a lieutenant-general. He has received 32 state awards for his service.

  • Now he is the head of the Fund of Customs Service veterans and a lieutenant-general. He has received 32 state awards for his service.





Anatoly Sergeevich was born in 1951 in the village of Ulaynki located in Moscow region.

  • Anatoly Sergeevich was born in 1951 in the village of Ulaynki located in Moscow region.

  • He was a correspondent student of the All Union Law Institute.



Kruglov started his career as a customs inspector in 1973 and his whole career is connected with the work of customs. Then he was the head of the department and a deputy chief of the Customs Office of Chkalovsky Airport.

  • Kruglov started his career as a customs inspector in 1973 and his whole career is connected with the work of customs. Then he was the head of the department and a deputy chief of the Customs Office of Chkalovsky Airport.



In 1992 he was appointed the head of the State Customs Committee of the Russian Federation and was in office until 1998.

  • In 1992 he was appointed the head of the State Customs Committee of the Russian Federation and was in office until 1998.



During the period between 1991 and 1994 much was done to create Customs legislation in Russia. Two important laws were put into action: “The Customs Code of the Russian Federation” and “Customs Tariff”. All provisions and regulations in these documents are of world standard.

  • During the period between 1991 and 1994 much was done to create Customs legislation in Russia. Two important laws were put into action: “The Customs Code of the Russian Federation” and “Customs Tariff”. All provisions and regulations in these documents are of world standard.



Russia has the world’s largest territorial border to police, much of it newly created after the disintegration of the USSR. And the creation of Russian Customs was complicated by the fact that the best-equipped and best-staffed Customs Services were outside Russia. As a result, it acquired 13500 km of new borders with the former Soviet Republics. Moreover, the staff increased greatly during this period of time. This process was matched by growing organizational complexity.

  • Russia has the world’s largest territorial border to police, much of it newly created after the disintegration of the USSR. And the creation of Russian Customs was complicated by the fact that the best-equipped and best-staffed Customs Services were outside Russia. As a result, it acquired 13500 km of new borders with the former Soviet Republics. Moreover, the staff increased greatly during this period of time. This process was matched by growing organizational complexity.



Kruglov was a member of various commissions which helped to solve urgent problems of that time.

  • Kruglov was a member of various commissions which helped to solve urgent problems of that time.

  • He was awarded with the Order of Honor.

  • Now he is the President of National Association of Customs Brokers.



























1.Графова Л.Л. English for Customs. М., 1998

  • 1.Графова Л.Л. English for Customs. М., 1998

  • 2. Государственная служба РФ. М., Юрист, 2007

  • 3. М.В. Ломоносов – основатель Московского Университета. По мат. книги Б.Н, Меншуткина «Жизнеописание Михаила Васильевича Ломоносова». Изд. АН СССр, Москва-Ленинград

  • 4.Соломеин А.Ю. История таможенного дела и таможенной политики России. СПб., 2007

  • 5. Таможенная служба в России. РИО РТА, 2003

  • 6. Таможенная служба в Российской Федерации. М., 2000

  • 7. Таможенная служба Санкт-Петербурга. Под общей редакцией В.И. Вьюнова СПб, «Статис» 2003

  • 8. Электронная научная библиотека






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