Apacage Some pointers to common pitfalls Hans Hummel, March 1, 2007 (Ch. 12 17)


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APAcage Some pointers to common pitfalls Hans Hummel, March 1, 2007 (Ch. 1.12-1.17)


Main source (‘bible’) Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (fifth edition, 2001)



Some prejudices

  • APA format is old and no longer functional

  • APA style does not apply to ALT journals

  • APA is a straitjacket

  • APA can be left to editors

  • …. exercise in conciseness and consistency!



Will NOT be addressed

  • Expressing ideas, line of reasoning  Marcus

  • Organisation of the method & article  Peter

  • Integration to EndNote / RefMan  Tim S

  • (Re)writing the article  handout emp. article

  • The (re)submission & reviewing process

  • All other frustrations & challenges



Will be addressed

  • Some ‘mechanical aspects’ of APA style: punctuation, capitalization, italics, headings, citations, …(Ch 3): just briefly

  • Reference list (Ch 4): most important examples

  • Manuscript preparation (Ch 5): just briefly



APA style: nitpicking

  • Punctuation: Period (.); comma (,); semicolon (;); colon (:); dash (-); quotation marks (“); parentheses (()); brackets ([]); slash (/); etc

  • Preferred spelling: UK vs US (behaviour / behavior, modelling / modeling, capitalization / capitalisation); follow-up (noun, adjective) vs followup (noun)(hyphenation); etc

  • Capitalization: all title words in text, but not in reference list

  • Quotations: block (>40 words); double / single quotation marks; author, specific page(s)



EXPERIMENT 1: AN INTERVIEW VALIDATION STUDY (level 5) External validation (level 4) Method (level 3) Participants (level 2) Sleep-deprived group. (level 1)



APA style: tables and figures

  • Table 1

  • Analysis of Variance for Classical Conditioning

  • [table]

  • but …

  • [figure]

  • Figure 1. Sample line graph.

  • List figure captions on separate page



APA style: Reference citations in text

  • Number of authors

  • One: Drachsler (2007) compared completion scores of … , or: In a recent study on completion (Drachsler, 2007) it was found that …

  • Two: Allways cite both names and the year. Note missing comma: (Drachsler & Hummel, 2007)

  • Three-Five: Cite all authors first time, in subsequent citations include only surname of first author followed by et al. and the year if it is the first citation within a paragraph. Note the comma: (Drachsler, Hummel, & Koper, 2007)

  • Six or more: cite only surname of first author followed by et al. and the year

  • Cite as many names as needed to distinguish

  • Special cases: groups of authors, same surnames, within same parentheses, classical works, ….

  • Beware of alphabetical and chronological order



Reference list (1)

  • Journal paper (periodical)

  • Koper, E. J. R., Pannekeet, K., Hendriks, M., & Hummel, H. G. K. (2004). Building communities for the exchange of learning objects: theoretical foundations and requirements. ALT-J Research in Learning Technology, 12(1), 21-35.

  • Note: only capitalise first word in title, capitalise all words in journal, only use issue number when each issues start renumbering!

  • Note status: published (above), accepted (in press), or submitted Manuscript submitted for publication.

  • Book (chapter) (nonperiodical)

  • Van Rosmalen, P., & Boticario, J. (2005). Using Learning Design to support design- and runtime adaptation. In R. Koper & C.Tattersall (Eds.), Learning Design: a handbook on modeling and delivering networked education and training (pp. 51-84). Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Verlag.

  • Note: use comma and ampersand with two authors



Reference list (2)

  • Online paper (periodical, Internet-only)

  • Hummel, H. G. K. (2006, December 19). Feedback model to support designers of blended learning courses. International Review of Open and Distance Learning, 7(3). Retrieved March 1, 2007, from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/379/748

  • Internet paper (periodical, based on print source)

  • Hummel, H. G. K. (2006). Feedback model to support designers of blended learning courses [Electronic version]. International Review of Open and Distance Learning, 7, 117-123. Retrieved March 1, 2007, from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/379/748

  • Nonperiodical documents on the Internet

  • IMS-LD (2003). IMS Learning Design specification. Retrieved February 27th, 2004, from http://www.imsglobal.org/learningdesign/index.cfm



Reference list (2)

  • Online paper (periodical, Internet-only)

  • Hummel, H. G. K. (2006, December 19). Feedback model to support designers of blended learning courses. International Review of Open and Distance Learning, 7(3). Retrieved March 1, 2007, from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/379/748

  • Internet paper (periodical, based on print source)

  • Hummel, H. G. K. (2006). Feedback model to support designers of blended learning courses [Electronic version]. International Review of Open and Distance Learning, 7, 117-123. Retrieved March 1, 2007, from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/379/748

  • Nonperiodical documents on the Internet

  • IMS-LD (2003). IMS Learning Design specification. Retrieved February 27th, 2004, from http://www.imsglobal.org/learningdesign/index.cfm



Reference list (3)

  • Conference paper (published regularly)

  • Hummel, H. G. K., Tattersall, C, Burgos, D., Brouns, F. M. R., Kurvers, H. J., & Koper, E. J. R. (2006). Fostering participation in learning networks by using reward systems and face-to-face meetings. Proceedings of the ICALT 2006 Conference, Kerkrade, The Netherlands, 5-7 July 2006 (pp. 534-536).

  • Note: names of editors and information retrieval information are not compulsory

  • Conference paper (non-published, irregular)

  • Verpoorten, D., Poumay, M., & Leclercq, D. (2006). The 8 Learning Events Model: a Pedagogic Conceptual Tool Supporting Diversification of Learning Methods. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development. 30-31 March 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence. Retrieved August 28, 2006, from http://hdl.handle.net/1820/674

  • Contribution to a conference (keynote, presentation, non-published)

  • Verpoorten, D., Poumay, M., & Leclercq, D. (2006). The 8 Learning Events Model: a Pedagogic Conceptual Tool Supporting Diversification of Learning Methods. Presentation at the International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development. 30-31 March 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence. Retrieved August 28, 2006, from http://hdl.handle.net/1820/674



Reference list (3)

  • Conference paper (published regularly)

  • Hummel, H. G. K., Tattersall, C, Burgos, D., Brouns, F. M. R., Kurvers, H. J., & Koper, E. J. R. (2006). Fostering participation in learning networks by using reward systems and face-to-face meetings. Proceedings of the ICALT 2006 Conference, Kerkrade, The Netherlands, 5-7 July 2006 (pp. 534-536).

  • Note: names of editors and information retrieval information are not compulsory

  • Conference paper (non-published, irregular)

  • Verpoorten, D., Poumay, M., & Leclercq, D. (2006). The 8 Learning Events Model: a Pedagogic Conceptual Tool Supporting Diversification of Learning Methods. Paper presented at the International Workshop on Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development. 30-31 March 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence. Retrieved August 28, 2006, from http://hdl.handle.net/1820/674

  • Contribution to a conference (keynote, presentation, non-published)

  • Verpoorten, D., Poumay, M., & Leclercq, D. (2006). The 8 Learning Events Model: a Pedagogic Conceptual Tool Supporting Diversification of Learning Methods. Presentation at the International Workshop in Learning Networks for Lifelong Competence Development. 30-31 March 2006, Sofia, Bulgaria: TENCompetence. Retrieved August 28, 2006, from http://hdl.handle.net/1820/674



Reference list (4)

  • Non-English journal articles

  • Intensitätsabhängigkeit evozierter Potenzial im EEG: Sind impulsive Personen Augmenter oder Reducer? [Intensity dependence in event-related EEG potentials: Are impulsive individuals augmenters or reducers?]. Zeitschrift für Differentielle und Diagnostische Psychologie, 21, 208-217.

  • Software

  • Vogten, H., Martens, H. (2005). CopperCore (version 1.2) [Computer software]. Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open Universiteit Nederland.

  • All other references (theses, reports, reviews, monographs, …)  95 types (APA manual, pp 240-281)



Manuscript preparation

  • 12 point courier, double spaced, 1 inch margins

  • Order: title page with running head; abstract (separate page); text; references; appendices; author note; tables; figure captions; figures

  • Indent first line of every paragraph (except abstract)

  • Electronical vs hardcopy submissions

  • Anonymisation (exclude author info)

  • Cover letter



Finally




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