“Art pour l’art” approach or a market oriented approach?


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“Art pour l’art” approach or a market oriented approach?

  • “Art pour l’art” approach or a market oriented approach?

  • Art is a profit exchange which generates wealth and employment 4th sector: Industry of subjectiveness

  • The market of contemporary art is involved in the distribution but also in the production: it influences the artists the market

  • Devaluation of the aesthetic interest



High specialisation and diversification of gatekeepers

  • High specialisation and diversification of gatekeepers

  • Internationalisation of markets

  • Different dynamics of support (public and private)

  • Multiplication of art exhibition spaces (traditional and new one)

  • Growth of the number of artists

  • Relevance of the role of the critics

  • Speed of the exchange and movements

  • Dematerialisation process of the work of art







  • “Who critizes through his/her work (performance, installation or art objects) the art market and the institutions in order to subverse the structures of power, the distribution and the exhibition mechanisms”

  • RIEMSCHNEIDER, B. e GROSENICK, U. (edited by) (2002), Art Now. 137 artistas al comienzo del S.XXI. Köln,Taschen, p. 560.



Different movements

  • Different movements

  • CA is a movement but also the “no movement”

  • BROODTHAERS, Marcel (Bruselas, Belgica, 1924-1975) (Arte Concettuale)

  • CALLE, Sophie (Paris, Francia, 1954-) (Anni’80 Europa)

  • CATTELAN, Maurizio (Padua, Italia, 1960-) (Anni’90 Europa)

  • DUCHAMP, Marcel (Blainville-Crevon, Bélgica, 1887- Neuilly-sur-Seine, 1968) (Dada)

  • FLEURY, Silvie (Suiza, 1962-) (Arte Concettuale)

  • GERRILLA GIRLS (Nueva York, U.S.A.) (Anni’80 America)

  • GILBERT Y GEORGE (San Martino, Dolomites, Italia, 1942-; Devon, U.K, 1943-) (Arte Concettuale)

  • HAACKE, Hans (Colonia, Alemania, 1936-) (Arte Concettuale)

  • HADJIMICHALIS, George (Atenas, Grecia, 1954-) (Anni’90 Europa)

  • KOONS, Jeff (York, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.,1955-) (Neo Geometric Conceptualism)

  • KRUGER, Barbara (Newark, 1945-) (Arte Concettuale)

  • LAURETTE, Matthieu (Villeneuve St. George, Francia, 1970-) (Anni’90 Europa)

  • MANZONI, Piero (Soncino,Cremona, Italia, 1934; Milàn, Italia, 1963) (Nouveau Realismo)

  • MEIRELES, Cildo (Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, 1948-) (Arte Concettuale)

  • MUNTADAS, Antoni (Barcelona, Espana, 1942-) (Anni’90 Europa)

  • ORLAN (Porte Mireille Orlan) (Saint-Etienne, Francia, 1947-) (Arte Concettuale)

  • PARDO, Jorge (La Habana, Cuba, 1963-) (Anni’90 Sudamerica)

  • PEREJAUME (Sant Pol de Mar, Barcelona, España, 1957-) (Arte Concettuale)

  • SEHGAL, Tino (Londres, U.K., 1976-) (Arte Concettuale)

  • SIERRA, Santiago (Madrid, España. 1966-) (Arte Concettuale)

  • WARHOL, Andy (Philadelphia, U.S.A, 1930- New York, 1987) (Pop Art. U.S.A.)

  • ………………………………………………………………………………………….



To verify if CA has a market

  • To verify if CA has a market

  • and how its performances are

  • 3. Methodology

  • Analysing of the CA

  • the CA artists works of art and their strategies





Main critics

  • Art as merchandise

  • Mechanisms of circulation and distribution

  • Cultural and artistic institutions

  • Selection mechanisms

  • Elitism in the art world

  • Authority’s concept

  • Authenticity’s concept



- More and more the artist is near to the worker, taking part to the socio-economic structure of his time

  • - More and more the artist is near to the worker, taking part to the socio-economic structure of his time

  • [BENJAMIN, W (1934) / BREA, J.L. (2004)]

  • Art as a product = concretisation of our socio-economic structure

  • - The artistic production can be compared with other remunerated work

  • Marx’ assumption concerning and Frankfurt School

  • Merchandise is the result of the alienating social relationship, deriving from work







  • HANS HAACKE (Colonia, 1936)

  • Proyekt’74. 1974.

  • Handful of asparaguses.(Manet. 1880).



The artistic value is defined on the base of the economic one

  • The artistic value is defined on the base of the economic one

  • the artistic product is legitimated as work of art because of the gatekeepers interests

  • PIERO MANZONI (Soncino, Cremona, 1933- Milan, 1963)

  • Artist’s excrement. 1961.



Demand and supply

  • Demand and supply

  • Different approaches:

  • Poli, F. (1976)

    • “honorific coefficient” (importance of the signature)
    • “coefficient of sublimation” (degree of intrinsic artistic of the work)


The Total Value of a work of art is the sum of:

  • The Total Value of a work of art is the sum of:

  • a) use value economic value

  • b) artistic value cultural value

  • c) commercial value economic value

  • Grampp (1991): theory of marginal utility to explain the art value (use value and artistic benefit)

  • Ramos (1996): use value = economic earning

  • the concept of marginal utility can not be applied to the work of art, because the utility is subjective



  • Vm = f (Na, A, R, Sc, D, E, S, Te, Q)

    • Fame of the artist
    • Authenticity
    • Scarcity (absolute, relative)
    • State of conservation
    • Dimensions
    • Époque
    • Subject
    • Techniques of execution
    • Quality:
  • - technical (objective)

  • - consumption (subjective)



Inconsistency/Gap between the value and the price

  • Inconsistency/Gap between the value and the price











TINO SEHGAL (London, 1976-)

  • TINO SEHGAL (London, 1976-)

  • Germany Pavillon, Giardini, Venice,

  • Biennial, 2005

  • This is exchange (2004-05)



Critic of the authority principle

  • Critic of the authority principle





  • Critic of the art gallery











  • CORNELIA SOLLFRANK (Feilershammer, 1960-)

  • Strategy:“Hacktivismo”









PIERO MANZONI (Soncino, 1933; Milan, 1963)

  • PIERO MANZONI (Soncino, 1933; Milan, 1963)





COLECTIVO 0100101110101101.org (1995)

  • COLECTIVO 0100101110101101.org (1995)

  • bienale.py

  • Biennial of Venice. 2001.









  • Database of 165 contextual artists

  • 73 artists in the database of Artindex Plus selection

  • 52 artists 5005 sales



CA

  • CA

      • Pre-War Current (before 1945)
      • Post-War Current (1945-1970)
      • Current of Actual Art (since 70s)
          • Movements: Dadaism, Surrealism, Pop Art, Body Art, Conceptual Art, Land Art, Internazionale Situazionista, Fluxus, Neo-Geo, Europe 80’s , EE.UU. 80’s ., Young British Artists, Europe 90’s, EE. UU. 90’s, and Europe 00.


Model of hedonic regression

  • Model of hedonic regression

  • log(Price) ~ broad + large + surface + genre+ technique + material + auction house + date of hammer + artist



Index price considering all the selected works (without printings)

  • Index price considering all the selected works (without printings)



Pre-War. All the works (without printings)

  • Pre-War. All the works (without printings)







Selling places of CA

  • Selling places of CA













The art proposed by the contextual artists can be defined as a dematerialized artistic “merchandise”

  • The art proposed by the contextual artists can be defined as a dematerialized artistic “merchandise”

  • The artist is an entrepreneur, belonging to the 4th sector: the industry of subjectiveness

  • Stable and increasing prices of CA, the average price of the work of arts is between 29.000 Euro (young artist) and 1.200.000 Euro (master).

  • CA is characterized by the interaction between the artistic field and context

  • The significance of CA is neutralized by the market,

  • this art is absorbed by it

  • The market produces alienation but at the same time it mediates the relationships in the artistic context



Only 44% of the 165 artists of the sample are in the secondary market

  • Only 44% of the 165 artists of the sample are in the secondary market

  • The price growth of the works of the CA tendency is positive during the period considered (1990-2007).

  • The liquidity ratio of CA is good (60%-80%.)



  • Europe and UK are the main place of Exchange of CA

  • The analysis by genre and support confirms that more than the half of works are belonging to the category of graphics (48%). Other main genres are: drawing (22%), installation (12%), painting (10%) and photography (8%).






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