As a support matrix for the polymer-il membrane the ceramic ultrafiltration module made from TiO2 with pore size 60 nm was used


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As a support matrix for the polymer-IL membrane the ceramic ultrafiltration module made from TiO2 with pore size 60 nm was used.

  • As a support matrix for the polymer-IL membrane the ceramic ultrafiltration module made from TiO2 with pore size 60 nm was used.

  • The PDMS was prepared by mixing a solution of RTV 615A and RTV 615B (General Electric) in 10:1 ratio at 60°C for 0.5 hour.

  • 15 wt% of tetrapropylammonium tetracyano-borate ionic liquid and 85 wt% polydimethylsiloxane (IL1).

  • 50 wt% of 1-ethenyl-3-ethyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ionic liquid was mixed with 50 wt% polydimethylsiloxane - (IL2).



The ternary system - practical application in biotransformation processes, where the fermentation broth from Clostridium acetobutylicum is normally used

  • The ternary system - practical application in biotransformation processes, where the fermentation broth from Clostridium acetobutylicum is normally used

  • The compound of interest is biofuel, namely BIObutanol

  • It is the main product of butan-1-ol fermentation and it is also the primary inhibitory product affecting the bioconversion















  • The enrichment factor of butan-1-ol increased from 2.2 (PDMS) up to 10.9 (IL2-PDMS) (Izák P, Ruth W, Dyson P, Kragl U (2007) Selective Removal of Acetone and Butan-1-ol from Water with Supported Ionic Liquid - Polydimethylsiloxane Membrane by Pervaporation, Chem. Eng. J., 139/2 (2008) 318-321)

  • Fermentation was carried out at 37°C and pH 4.5.

  • Firstly, a continuous fermentation with removal of ABE by pervaporation was measured without any butan-1-ol addition to test, if the SILM was selective and stable.



C. Acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was grown under anaerobic phosphate-limited conditions.

  • C. Acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was grown under anaerobic phosphate-limited conditions.

  • In the chosen fermentation system, especially the phosphate concentrations as well as the dilution rates were responsible for the amount of produced solvents.



Schema of continuous culture fermentation connected with pervaporation

  • Schema of continuous culture fermentation connected with pervaporation

  • 1.Waste tank; 2. Tank with substrate; 3. Culture vessel; 4. Pervaporation cell; 5. Cold trap; 6. Vacuum pump





  • ─ Butan-1-ol concentration;

  • Optical density



After successful tests, the concentration of butan-1-ol was several times increased to test the SILM under more stringent conditions and to study the effect of pervaporation on the cells.

  • After successful tests, the concentration of butan-1-ol was several times increased to test the SILM under more stringent conditions and to study the effect of pervaporation on the cells.

  • After 3 months of the experiment we did not observe any change of mass or selectivity of IL in the pores of the ultrafiltration membrane.







To get more effective ABE removal from fermentor we used pervaporation with IL-PDMS nonporous membrane.

  • To get more effective ABE removal from fermentor we used pervaporation with IL-PDMS nonporous membrane.

  • Using this membrane we were able to remove ABE from the culture supernatant more effectively than it was described by others (Qureshi et al. (1992), Soni et al. (1987), Liu et al. (2004)).



The supported ionic liquid membranes were weighted after all experiments and no weight changes were observed – stable SILM.

  • The supported ionic liquid membranes were weighted after all experiments and no weight changes were observed – stable SILM.

  • Higher diffusion coefficient is most probably responsible for higher permeation flux and enrichment factors of butan-1-ol in IL-PDMS membrane.

  • If we would run pervaporation with continuous and complete removal of butan-1-ol from the culture supernatant, it would lead to more stable fermentation process with higher production of BIObutanol.



  • This research was supported partially by grant No. 104/08/0600 from Czech Science Foundation and Marie Curie Reintegration Fellowships within the 6th European Community Framework Programme.




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