Berlin Wall Research by Samantha Santoro


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Berlin Wall

  • Research by

  • Samantha Santoro

  • G.A.P. 2006-2007


Why I chose this Building

  • Saw a documentary about it

  • Interesting

  • Know people who saw it



Name Origin and Meaning

  • Located in Berlin, called Berlin Wall

  • In German Berlin Wall is Berlin Mauer (Mauer meaning wall)



Location

  • Continent - Europe

  • Country – Germany (formerly East Germany)

  • City - Berlin





Important Facts

  • Was begun in 1961

  • No longer standing

  • East Germany and West Germany were separated by different governments

  • East Germany = poor & communist

  • West Germany = successful & free



Important Facts Con’d

  • The Allies supported West Germany which was democratic

  • The Soviet Union (Now Russia) controlled East Germany, which was communist



Functions

  • To try to stop people from moving from East Berlin/Germany to West Berlin/Germany (2.6 million people moved)

  • To try to stop “Brain Drain” from East Germany (Lost intelligent and young people)

  • From 1954 to 1961, 3,100 doctors had left-1/5 of doctors in East Germany



Considerations for Construction

  • Escaping Berliners

  • Political Issues

  • Dividing City/buildings/ churches





Walter Ulbricht

  • East German leader in 1961

  • Title was Chairman of the Council of State of the German Democratic Republic or GDR (Staatsratsvorsitzender in German)

  • Presenter of the idea of “temporary” barbed wire fence



Erich Honecker



Nikita Krushchev

  • Title was Premier Krushchev

  • The leader of the Soviet Union

  • Gave permission for Ulbricht’s proposal & said, “Put up the barbed wire. If they don’t react, put up a wall.”



Warsaw pact Members

  • Soviet union (most powerful)

  • East Germany

  • Czechoslovakia

  • Bulgaria

  • Hungary

  • Poland

  • Albania (left in 1962)



Size, Shape and Form

  • 96 miles - border length around West Berlin

  • 11.8 ft high, 66 miles long - Concrete segment wall

  • Each section weighed about 2.5 tons

  • 41 miles - wire mesh fencing



Size, Shape & Form Con’d



Phase 1

  • Barbed wire

  • (August 13, 1961)



Phase 2

  • Concrete objects (August 15, 1961)



Phase 3

  • Concrete slabs between steel girders and concrete posts (Beginning 1965)



Phase 4

  • Concrete segments

  • Bunkers

  • Watch & Viewing Towers

  • Guard dogs

  • Directing/control towers

  • Anti-vehicle trenches



Phase 4 Con’d

  • Tarmac roads

  • Electric fences

  • Armed guards

  • Flood lights

  • Automatic guns

  • East wall whitewashed (to show people climbing wall easily)





Materials

  • Cement slabs

  • Concrete blocks

  • Barbed wire

  • Metal pipes

  • Stalin’s grass

  • Wire mesh fence



Materials Con’d

  • Wire entanglements

  • Softsand

  • Tarmac



Human Interest Stories

  • West Berlin family tried to learn about sick relative in East Berlin by talking through fence

  • Couple lifted new twin babies over wall so grandparents could see them

  • East German guard saw scenes which made him jump over the fence



Escape Attempts

  • Man strapped meat to himself to protect him

  • People went through sewers

  • People went through tunnels

  • People jumped out windows

  • People went up in hot-air balloons

  • People hid in cars



Tunnel Construction

  • Usually measured 3 ft. by 3 ft.

  • Wooden floors and ceilings

  • Roof held up by wooden beams

  • Lit as light as a living room

  • Compressed air was pumped in to the people building the tunnel



Monument Sites

  • Hinterland Wall at the Bornholmer StraBe

  • Bernaur StraBe

  • Wall segments along the “Ulbricht-Kurve”

  • From the Death Strip to the Wall Park in Prenzlauer Berg



Monument Sites Con’d

  • Around the Nordbahnhof

  • The Invalid Cemetery in Berlin-Mitte

  • Hinterland Wall at the Leipziger Platz

  • The Wall at NiederkirchnerstraBe

  • Watchtower at the Kieler Eck

  • The Watchtower in the Erna-Berger-StraBe



Monument Sites Con’d 2

  • Directing Tower Schlesischer Busch

  • The Hinterland Wall at the Rudow Heights

  • And der Schillingbrucke

  • The East Side Gallery



Comparing & Contrasting to Others

  • Proposal of fence on US/Mexican Border-

  • 1. Not to keep American people in

  • 2. To keep illegal immigrants out

  • 3. Proposal is fence and vehicle barriers



Comparing & Contrasting to Others Con’d



Comparing & Contrasting to Others Con’d 2

  • The Great Wall of China

  • 1. Made of BRICK and GRANITE

  • 2. 3,948 miles long

  • 3. To protect people from nomadic tribes

  • 4. Ran through entire country of China



Bibliography

  • Internet

  • “Berlin Wall Wall-Monuments.” Senate Department of Urban Development. December 12, 2006 http://www.stadtentwicklung.berlin.de/denkmal/denkmale_in_berlin/en/berliner_mauer/mauer_denkmale.shtml

  • “Bermauer StraBe.” Berlin Wall. December, 13, 2006

  • “The Berlin Wall.” The Berlin Wall A look back at the fall of Communism

  • and Soviet influence. December 4, 2006

  • “Episode 9: The Wall.” CNN Perspectives Series Cold War. December 12,

  • 2006 http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/

  • Reber, Nichole. “Berlin Wall a powerful influence for intern’s architect’s

  • perspective.” Herald Tribune.com. December 4, 2006



Bibliography Con’d

  • “The Berlin Wall as a building structure.” Berlin Wall. December

  • 13,2006

  • berlin/en/berliner_mauer/>

  • “The system of the Berlin Wall.” History of the Berlin Wall. December 13,2006 http://www.dailysoft.com/berlinwall/history/facts_03.htm

  • “The Wall From East to West.” Concrete Curtain Tenth Anniversary

  • Opening of the Wall. December 12, 2006

  • http://www.msnbc.com/news/wld/graphics/berlinwall_dw.htm

  • Trager, Eric. “Security Fences Make Good Neighbors.” Israel–at-a- Glance. December 13,2006

  • “Trying to Escape.” Newseum: Berlin Wall. December 13,2006 http://www.newseum.org/cybernewseum/exhibits/berlin_wall/



Bibliography Con’d 2

  • “Wage Terrorists Lurking South of the Border.” December, 13,2006

  • http://statastic.com/category/Israel/

  • Books

  • Blashfeild, Jean F. Germany. New York: Children’s Press, 2003.

  • Epler, Doris M. The Berlin Wall How It Rose and Why It Fell Brookfield, Connecticut: The Millbrook Press, 1992.

  • Nickles, Greg and Niki Walker. Germany. New York: Raintree Steck- Vaughn Publishers, 2001.

  • Wyden, Peter. Wall The Inside Story of Divided Berlin. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1989.

  • Interview/ Letter

  • Muck, Jack. (702) 227-7212. December19, 2006.

  • Muck, Peggy. (702) 227-7212. December 19,2006.

  • Santoro, Susan. Home. December 19,2006.



Thank You

  • Thank you for listening!!!!!!!!!!




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