**BERTRAND RUSSELL**
** Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell British philosopher, historian, logician, mathematician, pacifist, anti-war activist, and anti-imperialist.** ## He wrote the essay “**On Denoting**" and was co-author (with **Alfred North Whitehead**) of **Principia Mathematica,** an attempt to ground **mathematics** on the laws of **logic**. Both works have had a considerable influence on **logic, mathematics,set theory,linguistics** and **analytic philosophy**.
**ANCESTRY** ## The Russells had been prominent in Britain for several centuries. ## His paternal grandfather John Russell, 1st Earl Russell, had twice been asked by Queen Victoria to form a government, serving her as Prime Minister in the 1840s and 1860s. ## Russell's parents were quite radical for their times. Both were early advocates of birth control at a time when this was considered scandalous. ## John Stuart Mill, the Utilitarian philosopher, stood as Russell's godfather. Mill died the following year, but his writings had a great effect upon Russell's life.
**LATER LIFE AND MARRIAGES** ## His mother and his sister died when he was 2-years old. ## His father died when he was only 4 years old. ## He grew up in the care of his grandparents. ## He had a scholarship and came under the influence of Alfred North Whitehead. ## He married high-minded Alys when he was 22. After this marriage, he married also three different women. ## He had 3 children, John, Katharine, and Conrad.
## Russell spent the 1950s and 1960s engaged in various political causes, primarily related to nuclear disarmament and opposing the Vietnam war. ## The 1955 Russell-Einstein Manifesto was a document calling for nuclear disarmament. ## Russell is generally considered as being one of the founders of analytic philosophy. ## Russell had great influence on modern mathematical logic. ## He discovered a paradox,known as __Russell’s Paradox.__ ## He developed Theory of types. ## Theory of types and much of his work had influence on computer science and information technology. ## Russell's last significant work in mathematics and logic, *Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy*, was written by hand while he was in jail for his anti-war activities during World War I.
## In 1949, he is awarded by the *Order of Merit* . By the following year he was awarded *Nobel Prize in Literature*. ## One day, Russell said he didn't feel well and remained in bed. He died of influenza before the doctor arrived.
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