British strengths


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BRITISH STRENGTHS

  • BRITISH STRENGTHS

  • Well-equipped & funded

  • Trained army

  • Strong navy, etc.



BRITISH WEAKNESSES

  • BRITISH WEAKNESSES

  • War was unpopular in Britain

  • Unknown, hostile territory

  • Commanders resisted adopting guerilla tactics



“Once these rebels have felt a

  • “Once these rebels have felt a

  • smart blow, they

  • will submit.”

  • King George III



Divide and conquer

  • Divide and conquer

    • Attack the middle Colonies to
    • separate north from south
  • Enlist help from mercenaries,

  • loyalists, and Native Americans

    • With Hessian support, the Brits attack Washington’s poorly trained & equipped forces in NY
  • Throw money & men at the problem



Build a military from the ground up

  • Build a military from the ground up

    • Continental soldiers, minutemen, militia,
    • privateers, etc.
  • Break tradition

    • Fight during the winter, use guerrilla support, etc.
  • Spies and Misinformation

    • Live to fight another day, present false information, use spies to secure intelligence, do the unexpected
  • Secure some powerful allies

    • France’s support proved key to victory




Muskets

  • Muskets

  • Cannons

  • Flintlock Pistols

  • Swords & Sabers

  • !Submarines!

    • Sort of… America’s first (and failed) experiment with the concept of an underwater vessel during the Revolutionary War. A submarine, then called "the Turtle" was invented by David Bushnell in order to attach explosives to British ships without being detected. Though General Washington loathed this underwater manner of attack as "ungentlemanly", the Turtle was deployed on September 6th, 1776.




“I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.”

  • “I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country.”

  • Nathan Hale,

  • Captured Patriot





Major actions in the state include:

  • Major actions in the state include:

    • 11/20/1776 - Forced Abandonment of Fort Lee, starting the retreat of the American army across NJ to the other side of the Delaware river.
    • 12/26/1776 - The first battle of Trenton
    • 1/3/1777 - The battle of Princeton
    • 4/14/1777 - The Battle of Bound Brook
    • June 1777 - The Battle of Short Hills
    • Autumn 1777 - River Forts defense of the lower Delaware
    • 6/28/1778 - The battle of Monmouth
    • 6/6/1780 - The Battle of Connecticut Farms
    • 6/23/1780 - The Battle of Springfield, last large action in the north.
    • Additionally, there were hundreds, even thousands, of smaller battles, engagements, skirmishes, raids, ambushes, etc. involving regular troops, militia units and loyalist units, and many actions off the coast of sea vessels.








Brilliant general

  • Brilliant general

  • Won several battles against the British

  • … then joined them.

  • He helped Ethan Allen take Fort Ticonderoga, also played a major part in the Patriot victory at Saratoga.

  • Feeling jaded and overlooked for appointment to higher posts, he joined the British and tried to help them win the war.

    • He had planned to deliver his own keys to West Point, site of the U.S. army, to Britain's Major John Andre.
    • Andre was captured and hanged. Arnold escaped and actually commanded British troops later in the war. He died in Britain, unrecognized and alone.


NY fort on the western shore of Lake Champlain

  • NY fort on the western shore of Lake Champlain

    • Originally French
    • Seized by British in the Fr. & Ind. War
  • Captured by Ethan Allen & Green Mountain Boys

    • along with Benedict Arnold
  • First "official" victory of the Revolutionary War

    • The fort held a stock of British weapons, cannons, etc.
    • Delayed a planned British invasion from Canada and also enabled American troops to invade Canada themselves.


Fought on hills north of Boston Harbor

  • Fought on hills north of Boston Harbor

  • Britain lost ~42% of their troops

  • Showed the American

  • forces they could do some

  • real damage to the great

  • army

  • No turning back now...

  • Losses:

    • ~1100 British
    • ~400 Patriot
  • Victory: Tactical v. Psychological



“These are the times that try men’s souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands it NOW deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph”

  • “These are the times that try men’s souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands it NOW deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph”

  • Thomas Paine, “The Crisis”

  • Winter of 1776



Christmas Eve, leave their post and secretly cross the Delaware River

  • Christmas Eve, leave their post and secretly cross the Delaware River



Washington and his troops cross the Delaware

  • Washington and his troops cross the Delaware

  • Achieve total surprise and a clear American victory

  • Captured nearly the entire Hessian force

    • Drunken German mercenaries celebrating the holidays
    • Stealthy tactics
      • Unusual winter fighting and movements at night
      • Left the fires burning to appear at camp
  • Days after Trenton, victory at Princeton drove the British out of NJ, almost for good

    • Morale boost
    • Chance to gain badly needed supplies




Series of battles near Saratoga, NY

  • Series of battles near Saratoga, NY

  • Resulted in a huge American victory and turning-point

    • 1/4 of British forces in North America surrendered
  • Won France as an ally



Pennsylvania encampment

  • Pennsylvania encampment

    • A particularly harsh winter
    • Army was short on food, clothing, & supplies.
  • Training the men

    • Commander G. Washington worked to make better, tougher soldiers
  • Among the soldiers who were encamped with Washington at Valley Forge were Generals Nathanael Greene and Benedict Arnold; Alexander Hamilton, Washington's personal aide; the Marquis de Lafayette; and a man named John Marshall, who would go on to become the first famous Chief Justice of the United States.





The most remarkable single ship duel of the American Revolution

  • The most remarkable single ship duel of the American Revolution

    • Bonne Homme Richard
      • Barely seaworthy
    • HMS Serapis
      • a strong, 50-gun ship
  • Asked to surrender, John Paul Jones answered: " Surrender be dammed, I have not begun to fight!"

    • And the Bon Homme Richard went on the vanquish the Serapis.


Washington’s troops aided by French forces attacked Cornwallis’ position

  • Washington’s troops aided by French forces attacked Cornwallis’ position

  • The French fleet prevented him from being reinforced or rescued



Came before the Constitution....

  • Came before the Constitution....

    • in effect, the first constitution of the United States.
    • Established a "firm league of friendship" between the 13 colonies
  • Created during the throes of the Revolutionary War

  • Reflected a wariness by the states of a strong central government

    • Fear of giving a central government too much power
      • Why?
  • Purposely vested the largest share of power to individual states

  • Weak & flawed in design, it was proven ineffective

    • Later replaced by what?...


Lack of support from the Continental Congress

  • Lack of support from the Continental Congress

  • Disruption in trade caused by the British blockade

  • Shortages of goods



Britain recognizes American independence

  • Britain recognizes American independence

  • Florida lands returned to Spain

  • Established the Mississippi

  • River as the boundary between

  • the new US and Spanish

  • territory to the west



The power of the Iroquois league was destroyed

  • The power of the Iroquois league was destroyed

  • For decades Native Americans were blamed for supporting the British




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