Broad comprehensive plan to manage the human resource. Broad comprehensive plan to manage the human resource


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Broad comprehensive plan to manage the human resource.

  • Broad comprehensive plan to manage the human resource.

  • Integrated and Interdisciplinary approach to managing manpower, fatigue and quality of life issues.

  • Safety & Health Priorities.

  • Evidence-based

    • Theory and research


Risk Management Model

  • Risk Management Model

    • Identify, measure and prioritize risk and develop and implement controls
  • Addresses Critical Challenges

    • 24/7 Operations & 24/7 Society
    • Unsupervised TE&Y workforce
    • Aging/new workforce
    • Unhealthy workforce
  • Scientifically based “toolbox” approach



Policy

  • Policy

    • Corporate & Local Policies
  • Training and Education

  • Ensuring adequate average sleep opportunity

    • Company responsibility
    • Software analysis & Measurement (FAID)


Ensuring employee preparedness: ensure that individuals who received an adequate average sleep opportunity have achieved sufficient sleep to ensure safe level of alertness [SLA]

  • Ensuring employee preparedness: ensure that individuals who received an adequate average sleep opportunity have achieved sufficient sleep to ensure safe level of alertness [SLA]

    • Education on signs & symptoms
    • Education & policy regarding minimal sleep and reporting
    • Shared Responsibility partnerships with employee, labor organizations and government


Additional Countermeasures (Toolbox)

  • Additional Countermeasures (Toolbox)

  • Research - ongoing process of pertinent research to ensure FRMS is evidence-based.







10-hour Undisturbed Rest/AM Mark-Up

  • 10-hour Undisturbed Rest/AM Mark-Up

    • Completed
  • Proactive Notification

    • Completed
    • Ongoing Enhancement
  • Work/Rest Cycles & Call Windows

    • Magic bullet mentality not justified -- Comprehensive and integrated process
    • More than just Crew Scheduling
      • Example - Seattle
      • Example - North Platte/Marysville


FAID Process

  • FAID Process

    • FAID Analysis -- Software package to identify the extent of any fatigue problems (i.e. locations or times of reduced average sleep opportunity)
    • System identification of where reduced sleep opportunity may lead to work-related fatigue
    • Assess whether interventions have increased sleep opportunity
    • Used in conjunction with the Board Game software for simulating the impact of changes at the board/pool level




Level 2 controls are designed to ensure that individuals who received an adequate average sleep opportunity have achieved sufficient sleep to ensure safe level of alertness [SLA]

  • Level 2 controls are designed to ensure that individuals who received an adequate average sleep opportunity have achieved sufficient sleep to ensure safe level of alertness [SLA]

  • This requires a high level of shared responsibility

  • This will require significant cultural change and time and is likely to be the most difficult element to implement effectively

  • Labor will play an important role in shaping the employee attitudes. Labor/management consultation will be essential

  • Implementation: Employee, Management and Family education and awareness.



Stage 1 - Initial Awareness

  • Stage 1 - Initial Awareness

    • Minimum Sleep/Wake Needs - 5/12 rule
    • Commenced -- Q1 2004
  • Stage 2 - Personal Management tool

    • Introduce Prior Sleep/Wake Model and behavioral scale
    • Used to manage personal behavior and ensure SLA
    • No reporting requirement
    • Proposed Completion
  • Stage 3 - Organizational Integration

    • Introduce Scoring System
    • Reporting of non-zero scores
    • Develop local decision matrices
    • Mark off


Industry collection of US Sleep/Wake Data

  • Industry collection of US Sleep/Wake Data

    • Ensure Level One Models are valid
    • Link L1 -> L2 -> L3 frequencies to ensure evidence-based policy
    • Establish industry benchmarks/policy guidelines for Sleep/Wake behavior
  • Research projects

    • Projects collecting Work/Rest, Sleep/Wake, Behavioral data
      • Kansas City [WR,SW, Actigraphy, PVT]
      • Des Moines/St. Paul [WR,SW, PVT]
      • San Antonio [Diaries, Actigraphy]


These reflect a general organizational shift in philosophy and policy

  • These reflect a general organizational shift in philosophy and policy

    • Increased focus on employee involvement in fatigue hazard identification and self-management of fatigue
      • i.e. self and peer education leading to self assessment
      • Clear policy guidelines on managing pre-defined unacceptable levels of fatigue-related behavior)
      • Example: Alternative to Discipline
        • Discipline vs. Peer Intervention


Physiological Monitoring Systems

  • Physiological Monitoring Systems

    • Ongoing internal technological review process
    • No current systems with acceptable Cost/Benefit Analysis
  • Self and Peer Identification of Fatigue-Related Behaviors

    • Generic symptom checklists (developed)
    • Task-specific symptom checklists
  • Sleep Disorders Screening

    • Certification process
    • FRA/UP Assessment Research Project
      • Voluntary Program (OHNS)
      • Education and Awareness
      • Related Health Issues
  • Overall Research Program



Identifying fatigue as a cause of errors or incidents

  • Identifying fatigue as a cause of errors or incidents

    • Evidence of L1-3 data consistent with fatigue
    • Nature of incident is consistent with fatigue-related error
  • Needs to be an industry initiative to ensure level playing field

  • Model and Boardgame Analysis

    • CIT






Assess the relationship between safety and risk factors such as: fatigue, sleep disorders, stress, depression, obesity, etc.

  • Assess the relationship between safety and risk factors such as: fatigue, sleep disorders, stress, depression, obesity, etc.

  • Part of UP FRMS

  • Create evidence-based interventions

  • Partnerships with Labor and Regulators

  • Bottom-line Implications: Improve employee health and safety while reducing medical costs, absenteeism and presenteeism.



Behavioral Health: 2003 WHO study (Wang, et al) suggests that depression most highly significant factor in accident and injury.

  • Behavioral Health: 2003 WHO study (Wang, et al) suggests that depression most highly significant factor in accident and injury.

  • Depression expected to become #1 cause of disability world-wide.

  • Wellness Inventory (Pfizer) UP studies indicate behavioral issues (depression, stress, anxiety) are most costly in presenteeism, absenteeism and medical costs.

  • Fatigue: Sleep Deprivation & Sleep Disorders are a societal issue impacting the work place: NSF reports 74% of Americans do not get enough sleep each night.



Sleep Disorders - Uservices

  • Sleep Disorders - Uservices

    • Objectives:
      • Assess percentage of TE&Y at risk for excessive daytime sleepiness
      • Demonstrate viability of sleep assessment as part of re-certification process
    • Methods
      • N= 437
      • Epworth Sleepiness Scale
      • Scores > 10 categorized at risk


Results

    • Results
      • At risk employee is > 35% (95% CI 35.4-44.8%)
      • Willingness to participate (confidentiality maintained)
      • Confirmation Study
        • Scores > 10 offered opportunity to wear a device to determine presence of OSA
        • 20 tests ordered, 10 completed
        • 9 confirmed positive for OSA
      • Recommendations
        • Additional research
        • Continued voluntary screening
        • Continued education and awareness


Actigraph - DU

  • Actigraph - DU

    • Objectives
    • Methods
      • Sleep Diaries/Self Report
      • Two Types of Actigraphs
      • Epworth Sleepiness Scale & PSQI
      • N (Questionaire) = 180 (60.4% response rate)
      • N (Actigraph) = 36


Results

    • Results
      • Lower mean sleepiness score than other sites (match approximate national average)
      • Behavioral outcomes (actigraph):
        • No statistical difference between those with feedback actigraph and those with non-performance actigraph
        • Those with self-efficacy more likely to use data to change behavior
        • Those without self-efficacy (external locus of control) unwilling to change behaviors
      • Implications for changing behaviors and providing concrete change


Joint Projects and Funding UPRR/FRA

  • Joint Projects and Funding UPRR/FRA

    • Coping Mechanisms – HIS
    • Depression – DU
    • Obesity – HIS
    • Integrated Health Improvement Initiative - HIS
  • BAA – FRA

  • Additional proposals currently under consideration.



Pilots assessed for system implementation

  • Pilots assessed for system implementation

  • Evidence-based development of programs and interventions to reduce or eliminate risks

  • Informed discussions, communications and programs

  • Implications for the industry

  • Safety, health and productivity focus

  • Additional safety research needed in all associated areas.




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