Case Case Syntactic structures (clauses, absolutes)


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Case

  • Case

  • Syntactic structures (clauses, absolutes)

  • Participles

  • The infinitive

  • Number

  • Finite verbs

  • Declensions




Purpose clauses

  • Purpose clauses

  • Relative clauses

  • Complementary infinitives

  • Indirect statement

  • Ablative absolutes



The active form is simply the 2nd principle part of the verb: mutare, docēre, mittere, audīre, ferre. Its translation comes from its use in the particular sentence.

  • The active form is simply the 2nd principle part of the verb: mutare, docēre, mittere, audīre, ferre. Its translation comes from its use in the particular sentence.

  • The passive form take the active form and changes the final –e to –ī, with the exception of 3rd conjugation where the whole –ere is dropped before adding the :

  • mutārī, docērī, mittī, audīrī, ferrī.



The infinitive serves as a secondary verb—While we can think of its basic meaning as “to___”, it gets its actual meaning and use only in relation to the finite verb of the sentence. It should never be considered “The Verb” of a sentence or clause.

  • The infinitive serves as a secondary verb—While we can think of its basic meaning as “to___”, it gets its actual meaning and use only in relation to the finite verb of the sentence. It should never be considered “The Verb” of a sentence or clause.

  • There are a number of infinitive forms:

  • Present active and passive

  • Perfect active and passive

  • Future active and (rarely) passive



The active form of the perfect infinitive is the third principle part of the verb with the ending –sse:

  • The active form of the perfect infinitive is the third principle part of the verb with the ending –sse:

  • occupāvisse, mīsisse, tulisse.

  • The passive form is the fourth principle part (generally with an accusative ending agreeing with the leading accusative noun) accompanied by the word esse :

  • occupatum esse, latās esse



The infinitive can be used

  • The infinitive can be used

  • -- in indirect statement, where it follows a “mind” or “head” verb and a direct object/accusative.

  • --as a complementary infinite following those verbs (studeo, propero, dubito) which need to be completed before they can be understood.



The complementary infinitive is an infinitive related to a verb which needs to be “completed” before its full meaning can be understood. Such verbs include studeō, properō, dubitō, possum. (list of most common complementary infinitives)

  • The complementary infinitive is an infinitive related to a verb which needs to be “completed” before its full meaning can be understood. Such verbs include studeō, properō, dubitō, possum. (list of most common complementary infinitives)

  • Exemplum

  • Mars nōn poterat militēs gloriōsōs docēre.

  • Mars was not able to teach the boastful soldiers



coepī, coeptus (defective verb-only 3rd and 4th principle parts) he/she/it began to

  • coepī, coeptus (defective verb-only 3rd and 4th principle parts) he/she/it began to

  • constituō, constituere 3, constituī, constitūtus

          • to decide
  • debeō, debere 2, debuī, debitus to ought to

  • dubitō, dubitāre 1, dubitavī, dubitātus to hesitate or doubt

  • mereō, merere 2, meruī, meritus to deserve

  • possum, posse, potuī, --- to be able (can)

  • properō, properāre 1, properavī, properātus

          • to hurry or hasten
  • studeō, studere 2, studui to be eager, to be desirous

  • timeō, timere 2, timui to fear, to be afraid to



A purpose clause is a subordinate clause that expresses why someone does something.

  • A purpose clause is a subordinate clause that expresses why someone does something.

  • In Latin, a purpose clause is introduced by and ut (so that) or (so that . . .not) and uses a verb the subjunctive mood.

  • Exempla

  • Cornelia gladium invēnit ut comās removēret.

  • Cornelia took a sword so that she could remove (her) hair.

  • Faber pilam rapuit nē filia eam super murum iaceret.

  • The craftsman grabbed the ball so that the daughter would not throw it over the wall again.



Indirect statement is a reported or conveyed statement.

  • Indirect statement is a reported or conveyed statement.

  • Statement: the dog was barking.

  • Indirect statement: The boys knew that the dog was barking

  • Indirect statement has three components.

  • A mind/head verb

  • A d.o./accusative

  • An infinitive

  • exempla



An indirect statement is simple statement that is being reported or commented on in some way.

  • An indirect statement is simple statement that is being reported or commented on in some way.

  • In Latin indirect statement is expressed by using a head/mind verb along with a direct object and an infinitive. That d.o. can be considered the lead noun of the infinitive and will be translated as if it were a subject.

  • Indirect Statement Exempla



Mind/heads verbs are verbs which express obvious mental processes: videre, audire, dicere, sentire,etc. They are often used to introduce indirect statement. (list of common mind/head verbs)

  • Mind/heads verbs are verbs which express obvious mental processes: videre, audire, dicere, sentire,etc. They are often used to introduce indirect statement. (list of common mind/head verbs)



Audiō 4: to hear

  • Audiō 4: to hear

  • Respondeō, respondere 2, respondī, responsus:

  • Sciō 4: to know

  • Videō, videre 2, vidī, visus: to see

  • Cognoscō, cognoscere 3, cognovī, cognitus:

      • to get to know, realize, become aware of
  • Sentiō, sentīre 4, sensī, sensus: to feel

  • Credō, credere 3, credidī, creditus: to believe

  • Sperō 1: to hope

  • Clamō 1: to shout

  • Negō 1: to deny, refuse



Discipula equōs currere ex agro viderat.

  • Discipula equōs currere ex agro viderat.

  • The student had seen that the horses were running from the field.

  • Dux piratam ad urbem fugere clamābat.

  • The leader was shouting that the pirate was fleeing toward the city

  • Dominus militēs villam et hortōs et nummōs non bene (well) custodivisse cognovit.

  • The master knew that the soldiers had not guarded the farm and the garden and the coins well



Domina filiās dormīre vīdit.

  • Domina filiās dormīre vīdit.

  • The mistress saw that the daughters were sleeping.

  • Musca ranam accedere sensit.

  • The fly felt that the frog was approaching.

  • Clamābat magister pueros mensas in hortum trahere.

  • The teacher was shouting that they boys were dragging the tables into the garden



A relative clause is a complete sentence found inside another sentence which describes one of the nouns in that second sentence.

  • A relative clause is a complete sentence found inside another sentence which describes one of the nouns in that second sentence.

  • The relative clause begins with a relative pronoun which shows the same number (singular or plural) and gender (masculine or feminine) as the noun it is describing. The relative clause usually ends with a verb.

  • Relative clause exempla

  • Relative pronoun forms



masc. fem. neuter

  • masc. fem. neuter

  • Singular

  • Nominative quī quae quod

  • Genitive cuius cuius cuius

  • Dative cuī cuī cuī

  • Accusative quem quam quod

  • Ablative quō quā quō

  • Plural

  • Nominative quī quae quae

  • Genitive quōrum quārum quōrum

  • Dative quibus quibus quibus

  • Accusative quōs quās quae

  • Ablative quibus quibus quibus



Nuntius quem regina mandāvit non tacebat.

  • Nuntius quem regina mandāvit non tacebat.

  • The messenger whom the queen sent was not keeping quiet.

  • Nuntius quī non tacēbat clamāvit et populum permovit.

  • The messenger, who was not keeping quiet, shouted and moved the people deeply.

  • Puella quam magister docēbat equōs amavit.

  • The girl whom the teacher was teaching loved horses.



Finite verbs are those verbs which take a nominative subject and can be considered the central element of a Latin sentence.

  • Finite verbs are those verbs which take a nominative subject and can be considered the central element of a Latin sentence.

  • Finite verbs can be either active or passive



Finite verbs all show tense, i.e., the time when something happens.

  • Finite verbs all show tense, i.e., the time when something happens.

  • They also show mood; indicative or subjunctive. As a very general rule, indicative states facts, while subjunctive gives wishes, commands or hopes—that is a very gross simplification.



The indicative tenses in Latin (with meanings) are

  • The indicative tenses in Latin (with meanings) are

  • Present: s/he __________s, s/he is _________ing, Does s/he___________?

  • Imperfect: she was _______ing, she used to________.

  • Future: she will _______, she is going to________.

  • Perfect: s/he________ed, s/he has ________ed, did s/he__________?

  • Pluperfect: s/he had__________ed.

  • Future perfect: s/he she will have _____________ed.



The subjunctive tenses in Latin are

  • The subjunctive tenses in Latin are

  • Present: let him/her__________,

  • he/she may_______________

  • Imperfect: s/he would, might _______________.

  • Perfect: s/he _____________ed

  • Pluperfect s/he would have _____________ed;

  • In some contexts, the subjunctive is translated just like its indicative counterpart.



1st 2nd 3rd 4th

          • 1st 2nd 3rd 4th
  • Present -at -et -it -it

  • Imperfect -ābat -ēbat -ēbat -iēbat

  • Future -ābit -ēbit -et -iet

  • Perfect: add –t to the 3rd principle part

  • Pluperfect: add –erat to the 3rd principle part, after removing the

  • Future perfect: add –erit to the 3rd principle part, after removing the

  • paradigm



1st 2nd 3rd 4th

          • 1st 2nd 3rd 4th
  • Present -atur -etur -itur -itur

  • Imperfect -ābatur -ēbatur -ēbatur -iēbatur

  • Future -ābitur -ēbitur -etur -ietur

  • Perfect: add the word est to the 4th principle part

  • Pluperfect: add the word erat to the 4th principle part.

  • Future perfect: add the word erit to the 4th principle part.

  • paradigm



Verb are sorted in 4 conjugations. The inifinitive shows the conjugation (-āre, -ēre, -ere, -īre). The conjugation dictates what vowels will be before the endings in the imperfect tense (tenebat, audiebat), as well as the present participle (necantem, ponentes).

  • Verb are sorted in 4 conjugations. The inifinitive shows the conjugation (-āre, -ēre, -ere, -īre). The conjugation dictates what vowels will be before the endings in the imperfect tense (tenebat, audiebat), as well as the present participle (necantem, ponentes).

  • They are also important in forming the present (both indicative and subjunctive) and future tenses. These forms are not learned in the first semester.



1st conjugation 2nd 3rd* 4th

    • 1st conjugation 2nd 3rd* 4th
    • Present indicative
    • Portat docet mittit audit
    • Present subjunctive
    • Portet doceat mittat audiat
    • Future indicative
    • Portabit docebit mittet audiet
    • *3rd –io verbs (like facio, facere, fēcī, factus) straddle the 3rd and 4th conjugations.
    • Usually they resemble the 4th conjugation (facit, faciat, faciet) but in the infinitive (facere) and imperative resemble the 3rd.
    • Click here for passive


1st conjugation 2nd 3rd* 4th

    • 1st conjugation 2nd 3rd* 4th
    • Present indicative
    • Portatur docetur mittitur auditur
    • Present subjunctive
    • Portetur doceatur mittatur audiatur
    • Future indicative
    • Portabitur docebitur mittetur audietur
    • *3rd –io verbs (like facio, facere, fēcī, factus) straddle the 3rd and 4th conjugations.
    • Usually they resemble the 4th conjugation (facit, faciat, faciet) but in the infinitive (facere) and imperative resemble the 3rd.
    • Click here for active


1st 2nd 3rd 4th

          • 1st 2nd 3rd 4th
  • Present amat docet mittit audit

  • Imperfect amābat docēbat mittēbat audiēbat

  • Future amābit docēbit mittet audiet

  • Perfect: amāvit docuit mīsit audīvit

  • Pluperfect: amāverat docuerat mīserat audīverat

  • Future perf: amāverit docuerit mīserit audīverit

  • Click here for passive



1st 2nd 3rd 4th

          • 1st 2nd 3rd 4th
  • Present amatur docetur mittitur auditur

  • Imperfect amābatur docēbatur mittēbatur audiēbatur

  • Future amābitur docēbitur mittetur audietur

  • Perfect: amātus est doctus est mīssus est audītus est

  • Pluperfect: amātus erat doctus erat missus erat audītus erat

  • Future perf: amātus erit doctus erit missus erit audītus erit

  • Click here for active



1st 2nd 3rd 4th

          • 1st 2nd 3rd 4th
  • Present -et -eat -at -iat

  • Imperfect -āret -ēret -eret -īret

  • Perfect: add –erit to the 3rd principle part, after removing the -ī

  • Pluperfect: add –sset to the 3rd principle part

  • paradigm



1st 2nd 3rd 4th

          • 1st 2nd 3rd 4th
  • Present amet doceat mittat audiat

  • Imperfect amāret docēret mitteret audīret

  • Perfect amāverit docuerit mīserit audīverit

  • Pluperf amāvisset docuisset mīsisset audīvisset

  • Click here for passive



1st 2nd 3rd 4th

          • 1st 2nd 3rd 4th
  • Present ametur doceatur mittatur audiatut

  • Imperfect amāretur docēretur mitteretur audīretur

  • Perfect amātus sit doctus sit missus sit audītus sit

  • Pluperf amātus esset doctus esset missus esset audītus esset

  • Click here for active



Participles are adjectives made from verbs.

  • Participles are adjectives made from verbs.

  • There are 4 different types of participles in Latin

  • Present active with the endings -ns, -ntēs

  • Perfect passive made from the 4th principle part

  • Future active showing –ur-before the ending

  • Future passive-showing –nd-before the ending



The present participle uses third declension endings

  • The present participle uses third declension endings

  • Singular Plural

  • Nominative duce-ns duce-nt-ēs

  • Genitive duce-nt-is duce-nt-ium

  • Dative duce-nt-is duce-nt-ibus

  • Accusative duce-nt-is duce-nt-ēs

  • Ablative duce-nt-is duce-nt-ibus

  • likewise: ama-ns; doce-ns, audie-ns



The present participle, translated ____ing, can serve as an adjective for any noun:

  • The present participle, translated ____ing, can serve as an adjective for any noun:

  • Puer currens ancillās in hortō dormientēs vidit.

  • Since is originates from verb it can even take a direct object:

  • Puer sportulas ferens ancillās mensam trahentēs vidit.

  • Present participle active forms



The perfect participle passive, translated having been_____ed, can serve as an adjective for any noun:

  • The perfect participle passive, translated having been_____ed, can serve as an adjective for any noun:

  • Dux occupatus per forum cucurrerat.

  • And sometimes there is another element between the participle and its noun.

  • Puer in hortō visus florēs ex ancillīs raptōs ferebat.

  • Perfect participle passive forms



The perfect passive participle uses the same endings as 1st and 2nd declension nouns. The 1st declension endings are used if the noun described is feminine, the 2nd if masculine. (forms)

  • The perfect passive participle uses the same endings as 1st and 2nd declension nouns. The 1st declension endings are used if the noun described is feminine, the 2nd if masculine. (forms)



Singular

  • Singular

  • Nominative uxor amāt-a hospēs amāt-us

  • Genitive uxoris amāt-ae hospitis amāt-ī

  • Dative uxorī amāt-ae hospitī amāt-ō

  • Accusative uxorem amāt-am hospitem amāt-um

  • Ablative uxore amāt-ā hospite amāt-ō

  • Plural

  • Nominative uxorēs amāt-ae hospitēs amāt-ī

  • Genitive uxorum amāt-ārum hospitum amāt-ōrum

  • Dative uxoribus amāt-īs hospitibus amāt-īs

  • Accusative uxorēs amāt-ās hospitēs amāt-ōs

  • Ablative uxoribus amāt-īs hospitibus amāt-īs



Number is the term for whether something is singular or plural. All nouns, adjective and participles have to show number as well as case and gender.

  • Number is the term for whether something is singular or plural. All nouns, adjective and participles have to show number as well as case and gender.

  • Verbs also have number but it is not treated in the first semester.



There are five major cases in Latin:

  • There are five major cases in Latin:

  • nominative

  • genitive

  • dative

  • accusative

  • ablative

  • and two secondary cases:

  • vocative

  • locative



Nominative—used for the subject or words describing the subject

  • Nominative—used for the subject or words describing the subject

  • Genitive-used for possession and with some adjectives, verbs and prepositions

  • Dative-used for the indirect object (to or for someone or something) and with some verbs

  • Accusative-used mainly for the direct object and with some prepositions.

  • Ablative-used with some prepositions [a(b), e(x), de, pro, sine, in, sub], ablative absolutes, and when used alone, the ablative of means.



Nominative—used for the subject or words describing the subject

  • Nominative—used for the subject or words describing the subject

  • Genitive-used for possession and with some adjectives, verbs and prepositions

  • Dative-used for the indirect object (to or for someone or something) and with some verbs

  • Accusative-used mainly for the direct object and with some prepositions.

  • Ablative-used with some prepositions [a(b), e(x), de, pro, sine, in, sub], ablative absolutes, and when used alone, the ablative of means.



Secondary cases

  • Secondary cases

  • The vocative-used when addressing someone directly. It uses the nominative forms except in the 2nd declension, where –ius goes to –ī, and –us goes to –e.

  • Exemplum: Marcus Tullius becomes Marce Tulli.

  • The locative-used to tell where something is located or takes place. It is used mainly for towns (Romae, Athenis) and the words domi (at home) and ruri (in the countryside).



The vocative-used when addressing someone directly. It uses the nominative forms except in the 2nd declension, where –ius goes to –ī, and –us goes to –e

  • The vocative-used when addressing someone directly. It uses the nominative forms except in the 2nd declension, where –ius goes to –ī, and –us goes to –e

  • Marcus Tullius when adressed is Marce Tullī

  • The locative-used to tell where something is located or takes place. It is used mainly for towns (Romae, Athenis) and the words domi (at home) and ruri (in the countryside).



Each word that uses case endings can show 10 different endings depending on its job in the sentence. The are two endings for each case, one for the singular and one for the plural. The actual ending for each word will depend on the declension in which it is found.

  • Each word that uses case endings can show 10 different endings depending on its job in the sentence. The are two endings for each case, one for the singular and one for the plural. The actual ending for each word will depend on the declension in which it is found.



The case of a word is shown in its ending.

  • The case of a word is shown in its ending.

  • In the word puellam, the ending –am shows that it is in the accusative case (and it is singular)

  • In the word puellis, the ending -is shows that it is in either the dative or ablative case and that is it plural.

  • Case endings (2nd page)



Nominative is used for the subject or words describing the subject. It is marked up S. The nominatives in the following sentences are underlined.

  • Nominative is used for the subject or words describing the subject. It is marked up S. The nominatives in the following sentences are underlined.

  • Invenit puellam vacca.

  • Taurus per urbem currebat

  • Villam dux reliquerat.

  • The endings for the nominative case can be found

  • in the declensions pages



Accusative is used mainly for the direct object and with some prepositions (ad, trans, in, contra, circum, per). The accusatives in the following sentences are underlined.

  • Accusative is used mainly for the direct object and with some prepositions (ad, trans, in, contra, circum, per). The accusatives in the following sentences are underlined.

  • Puella sportulas per villam ferebat.

  • The girl was carrying the baskets though the villa.

  • Hospitem ad arbores uxor miserat.

  • The wife had sent the guest toward the trees

  • Scelestus pecuniam in murōs sepelīvit.

  • The crook buried the money in the walls.

  • The endings for the accusative case can be found

  • in the declensions pages



Ablative is used with some prepositions [a(b), e(x), de, pro, sine, in, sub], ablative absolutes, and the ablative of means. The ablatives in the following sentences are underlined.

  • Ablative is used with some prepositions [a(b), e(x), de, pro, sine, in, sub], ablative absolutes, and the ablative of means. The ablatives in the following sentences are underlined.

  • Puer ex arbore cecidit.

  • The boy fell from the tree.

  • Gladio clamoribusque magister milites terrebat.

  • The teacher with a sword and shouts was terrifying the soldiers.

  • Fenestrā apertā, Maximus solem vīdit.

  • When the window had been opened, he huge man saw the sun.

  • The endings for the ablative case can be found

  • in the declensions pages



When a non-human noun is used in the ablative case, without being related to a preposition or part of an ablative absolute, it is most likely an ablative of means. In the following sentences the ablative of means is underlined. N.B. We often translate the ablative of means as “with” in English.

  • When a non-human noun is used in the ablative case, without being related to a preposition or part of an ablative absolute, it is most likely an ablative of means. In the following sentences the ablative of means is underlined. N.B. We often translate the ablative of means as “with” in English.

  • servus cibum carrō traxerat.

  • The slave had brought the food by means of a cart.

  • crevit arbor aquā soleque.

  • The tree has grown by water and sun.

  • ubi pellēbātur rupibus equus?

  • Where was the horse being pelted with rocks



The ablative absolute is a phrase that gives background information for the rest of the sentence. The A. A. is two words in the ablative case, agreeing in number and gender as well. One word is usually a noun while the other is typically a participle. The translation will depend on the type of participle used.

  • The ablative absolute is a phrase that gives background information for the rest of the sentence. The A. A. is two words in the ablative case, agreeing in number and gender as well. One word is usually a noun while the other is typically a participle. The translation will depend on the type of participle used.

  • Exempla:

  • Perfect participle passive, a. form or b. meaning

  • turbīs occupatīs after the crowds were attacked

  • filiō celato after the son was hidden

  • urbe visā after the city was seen

  • Present participle active, a. form or b. meaning

  • asinīs ferentibus while the donkeys were carrying

  • ducibus relinquentibus while the leaders were leaving

  • coquō parante while the cook was preparing



Each noun is assigned to one of five declensions

  • Each noun is assigned to one of five declensions

  • and only uses the case endings of that declension.

  • The only way you know that a noun is in one declension (and not another) are the endings which it uses. If you know the nominative singular form and the accusative plural from, you can figure out all the other forms (with a few exceptions).



The word vacca (1st declension) will always be vaccam when it is a singular direct object and vaccas when a plural direct object.

  • The word vacca (1st declension) will always be vaccam when it is a singular direct object and vaccas when a plural direct object.

  • The word taurus (2nd declension) will always be taurum when it is a singular direct object and tauros when a plural direct object.

  • The charts of the declension are found here:

  • 1st 2nd 2nd neuter 3rd 3rd neuter

  • 4th 4th neuter 5th



Singular Plural

  • Singular Plural

  • Nominative templ-um templ-a

  • Genitive templ-ī templ-ōrum

  • Dative templ-ō templ-īs

  • Accusative templ-um templ-a

  • Ablative templ-ō templ-īs



Singular Plural

  • Singular Plural

  • Nominative vacc-a vacc-ae

  • Genitive vacc-ae vacc-arum

  • Dative vacc-ae vacc-īs

  • Accusative vacc-am vacc-ās

  • Ablative vacc-ā vacc-īs



Singular Plural

  • Singular Plural

  • Nominative taur-us* taur-ī

  • Genitive taur-ī taur-ōrum

  • Dative taur-ō taur-īs

  • Accusative taur-um taur-ōs

  • Ablative taur-ō taur-īs

  • *some nominative singulars end in –r: puer, ager, vir, magister, and (except in puer) that -e- before the final –r disappears in the oblique cases agrum, magistrum



Singular Plural

  • Singular Plural

  • Nominative flos* flor-ēs

  • Genitive flor-is flor-um**

  • Dative flor-ī flor-ibus

  • Accusative flor-em flor-ēs

  • Ablative flor-e** floribus

  • *The nominative singular ending is undefined. There is no set form

  • **some words show -ium: navium, urbium, in the genitive plural, and a smaller group show –ī in the ablative singular.



Singular Plural

  • Singular Plural

  • Nominative caput capit-a*

  • Genitive capit-is capit-um*

  • Dative capit-ī capit-ibus

  • Accusative caput capit-a*

  • Ablative capit-e capitibus

  • *Some words show –ia in the nominative and accusative plural and –ium in the genitive plural: animalia, animalium



Singular Plural

  • Singular Plural

  • Nominative lac-us lac-ūs

  • Genitive lac-ūs lac-uum

  • Dative lac-uī lac-ibus

  • Accusative lac-um lac-ūs

  • Ablative lac-ū lac-ibus



Singular Plural

  • Singular Plural

  • Nominative fid-ēs fid-ēs

  • Genitive fid-ēī fid-ērum

  • Dative fid-ēī fid-ēbus

  • Accusative fid-em fid-ēs

  • Ablative fid-ē fid-ēbus




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