Chapter 23: Science and Technology By: Olivia Zhao Invention Timeline (1800-1860)


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Chapter 23: Science and Technology By: Olivia Zhao


Invention Timeline (1800-1860)

  • 1800 – Frenchmen, J.M. Jacquard invents the Jacquard Loom; Count Alessandro Volta invents the battery

  • 1804 – Richard Trevithick, an English mining engineer, developed the first steam-powered locomotive

  • 1809 – Humphry Davy invents the first electric light – the first arc lamp

  • 1814 – George Stephenson designs the first steam locomotive; Joseph Nicéphore Niépce was the first person to take a photograph

  • 1816 - René Laënnec invents the stethoscope.

  • 1818 - British obstetrician James Blundell performs the first successful transfusion of human blood.

  • 1829 – American, W.A. Burt invents a typewriter

  • 1830 – Frenchmen, Barthelemy Thimonnier invents a sewing machine

  • 1831 – American, Cyrus McCormick invents the first commercially successful reaper; 1834 – Henry Blair patents a corn planter

  • 1835 – Englishmen, Henry Talbot invents calotype photography; Englishmen, Francis Pettit Smith invents the propeller; Charles Babbage invents a mechanical calculator

  • 1836 – Francis Pettit Smith and John Ericcson co-invent the propeller;



Invention Timeline (Continued)

  • 1837 – Samuel Morse invents the telegraph

  • 1839 –Frenchmen, Louis Daguerre and J.N. Niepce co-invent Daguerreotype photography; Kirkpatrick Macmillan invents a bicycle

  • 1843 –Richard March Hoe invents the rotary printing press

  • 1845 – American, Elias Howe invents a sewing machine;

  • Late 1840s – Invention of better clipper ships

  • Later 1840s – Invention of steam ships

  • 1850 – Joel Houghton was granted the first patent for a dishwasher

  • 1851 – Isaac Singer invents a sewing machine

  • 1852 – Henri Giffard builds an airship powered by the first aircraft engine – an unsuccessful design

  • 1853 – George Cayley invents a manned glider

  • 1855 – Isaac Singer patents the sewing machine motor; Georges Audemars invents rayon

  • 1858 – Hamilton Smith patents the rotary washing machine;

  • 1867 - Joseph Lister publishes Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgery

  • 1870s - Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch establish the germ theory of disease.

  • 1879 – First vaccination for cholera

  • 1881 – First vaccination for anthrax

  • 1882 – First vaccination for rabies



Electronic Breakthrough

  • Before:

    • Concept of the “day” was limited to outdoor lighting
    • Or primitive lighting (candles)
  • Invention:

    • 1800: Alessandro Volta invents the battery:
      • The “Voltaic Pile”: Pieces of cloth soaked in salt water
      • placed between alternating copper and zinc disks
      • Friction between metal creates electrical current
      • Could store electricity and provide constant current
  • Effects:

    • Communication Revolution:
      • Ordinary people could now communicate quickly
      • Transactions (especially money orders) were safer
      • 1837: Morse invents the telegraph
      • 1876: Graham Bell patents telephone
    • Lighting:
      • First gas lighting, then usable lighting at homes
      • Changes communities. Perception of “day” ended
      • 1809: Davy invents first electric lamp


Medical Advances

  • Before:

  • Major advances:

    • 1816 - René Laënnec invents the stethoscope.
    • 1818 - James Blundell performs the first successful transfusion of human blood.
    • 1867 - Joseph Lister publishes Antiseptic Principle of the Practice of Surgery
      • Revolutionary idea of cleanliness in the operation room
      • Created antiseptic methods for surgery (the use of carbolic acid to clean wounds and surgical instruments
    • 1870s - Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch establish the germ theory of disease.
      • Disease is caused by a specific organism, not one that spontaneously forms in the body (as was believed at that time)
      • Doctors, without washing hands after handling infected bodies, treated patients, thus spreading disease
    • 1879 – First vaccination for cholera
    • 1881 – First vaccination for anthrax
    • 1882 – First vaccination for rabies


The Results of Medical Advances

  • Antiseptic Principles:

    • Greater awareness of cleanliness and infection creates advances in sanitation and possibility of surgery
    • In one hospital: Death from infection from 60% to 4%
  • Germ Theory of Disease:

    • Doctors were better at fighting diseases
    • Preventive measures (washing hands before treating a patient)
  • New vaccinations in cholera, anthrax, and rabies

    • Prevented massive outbreaks and pandemics of disease such as the cholera epidemic in the 1830s


Transportation

  • Before:

    • Ordinary people commuted by walking
    • Or they stayed at home
    • In 1830: Less than 20,000 people a year crossed the Atlantic to America
  • Inventions:

    • By Land:
      • 1804 – Richard Trevithick develops the first steam-powered locomotive
      • 1814 – George Stephenson designs the first steam locomotive
        • Transportation would be made comfortable with railway cars, sleeping cars, and dining cars
    • By Sea:
      • Late 1840s: Invention of the Clipper ship
        • Fast, compact merchant vessel
      • 1836 – Francis Pettit Smith and John Ericcson co-invent the screw propeller for ships
        • Would be a major mechanism in later ships
      • Later 1840s: Invention of steamships
        • First successful line across the Atlantic: (Britannia)


Impacts on Land Transportation

  • Land Transport:

    • Steam locomotive:
      • Major advances in railroad transportation
        • More tunnels, stations, railway bridges, and even beginning subways
        • Sheds and workshops for locomotives
      • Faster: Cross all of Europe in 3 to 4 days by rail
      • 1840-50s: About 16,000 miles of railway track
      • By World War I: Over 220,000 miles of track
    • “The thousands of miles of road, and canal, and tunnel, and bridges…if you count all this you have a public mass of works vaster than anything humanity has every produced.”
        • Weber Video Program 41: Industrial Revolution (Watch Below)
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=unDJ9J7gB7o
    • Also: History Channel:
      • http://www.history.com/topics/industrial-revolution


Impacts on Overseas Transportations

  • Invention of the clipper ship

    • From 150 miles a day of a normal ship to 250 miles a day with a clipper
    • From Liverpool to Boston in 12 days
  • Invention of the screw propeller

    • The propeller was the a thrust mechanism on the ship
    • Leads to invention of steamships and would be a major component in other ships
      • At the end of the century: One million people crossed the Atlantic every year


Comparing the Communication Revolution and Transportation Advances

  • Made the world “smaller”

  • Faster speed in the transfer of knowledge and information around the world

  • Tens of thousands of telegraph lines and poles dotting the landscape

  • In the 1870s, a telegram can travel around the world in a few hours

  • In the 1900, the telephone had 2½ million European subscribers (In the 1870s, it was thought to be a trick)



Industry and Clothing Trends

  • Before:

    • 1700s: Weaving industries involved long and tedious work on intricate designs. Amount of time almost reduced the profit of the product to nothing
    • Sowing was done in home with needle and thread
    • The poorer classes would wear plain, second-hand clothes, made of durable and hard material
    • At most two suits or dresses in a lifetime
  • Inventions:

    • 1800: Frenchmen, J.M. Jacquard invents the Jacquard Loom
      • System of punch cards and hooks that were reused to produce the same intricate pattern on a product consistently
    • 1851: Isaac Singer invents a sewing machine and first to patent
      • Stitching of fabrics mechanically in the fraction of a second
      • At the end of the century: Households could purchase their own sewing machine
  • Effects:

    • The Jacquard Loom improved textile industries, and decreased the cost of human labor
      • The idea of “algorithms” (set patterns) for machinery would also be later utilized in the coming centuries (For example: computers)
    • Singer’s sewing machine allowed quicker sewing other than the needle and thread, and allowed at the end of the century women to make their own garments
    • The miserable labor in the textile and other industries at this time created gingham and calico prints that were cheap enough for the working classes to buy


Workers of the New Industry

  • Working life

    • Dangerous and laborious
      • Cotton lint in the factories could develop into bad respiratory diseases
      • Before the invention of the Jacquard Loom, draw boys were needed in the loom to direct the weaving of the intricate patterns. Some were dismembered if they were too slow
    • Shifts lasted 12-16 hours
    • Workers who were late were either beaten or fired
    • Injured and sick workers were fired
  • Women and children workers

    • Paid slightly less than men
  • Ways of enduring

    • Protests and the formation of unions
      • Many were crushed by the government
      • The formation of unions, however, was legalized after the abolishment of the Combination Acts of 1825, that once prohibited them
    • Methodism: Religious Movement
      • John Wesley: Focus on a better life after their labor on Earth


Newspapers and Printing

  • Before:

    • A society that was not tuned to constant and recent news but rather routine
    • 18th Century: Newspapers were costly and only for those with money
  • Invention:

    • 1843: Richard March Hoe invents the rotary printing press
      • A printing press on which a paper would roll between a supporting cylinder and a cylinder which contained the printing plates
    • The Communication Revolution (mentioned earlier)
      • Created the 19th Century notion of “news”
  • Effects:

    • The rotary press led to faster, and more efficient printing
      • Daily and weekly papers were increasing constantly (more accessible news)
      • The London Times printed 5,000 copies a day in 1815 and sold for 7 pence
        • In 1855: The London Times printed 50,000 copies a day for 5 pence
    • News traveled fast. In latter part of century, news can spread in hours
    • Cheap costs of papers allowed all classes to access news
      • Circulation raised from hundreds of thousands to the millions in the 1890s (Weber Program 41)
    • Number of revolutions and political crises in the 19th Century were mostly caused by the public emotions incited by the press (Example: Revolution of 1830)


Photography

  • Before:

    • Events were vague and “unreal”
    • Paintings and portraits were only accessible to the wealthy
    • Propaganda also was conveyed in paintings
      • Example: Napoleon’s battles
  • Inventions:

    • 1814 – Joseph Nicéphore Niépce was the first person to take a “photograph”
      • A newly invented art of lithography that allowed for the first permanent image of nature
    • 1839 –Frenchmen, Louis Daguerre and J.N. Niepce co-invent Daguerreotype photography
      • The first practical photographs that were on a sheet of metal or glass
  • Effects:

    • New prints and etchings were now graphic and visual, showing events realistically
      • For example: Francisco Goya’s “Horrors of War” series
    • Allowed lower class families the ability to decorate their homes with inexpensive pictures, portraits, and reproductions of images
    • It gave evidence to real life events and identified public figures


The Agricultural Revolution

  • Before:

    • By 1800: 3/4 of Europe’s population grew food
      • 10% of people lived in cities
      • Diet consisted of bread and potatoes
    • Europe lived on the verge of famine or hunger
  • Inventions

    • Transportation allowed the faster transport of food and grain
    • 1831 – Cyrus McCormick invents the first commercially successful reaper (Machinery that aids in the harvesting of crops)
    • 1834 – Henry Blair patents a corn planter
      • Less human labor required to plant corn
    • More land for farming, better crop rotation, more fertilizer, and using better tools
  • Effects:

    • By 1900: 1/2 of Europe’s population grew food
      • 40% of Europeans lived in cities
      • Better diet consisting of more fruit, vegetables, and meat
    • Less famines, and eventually after the mid 19th Century, none
    • Majority of surplus was produced in Europe (Especially Great Britain)
    • By end of 19th Century, King Corn and cereals were major goods in international trade (1/10)
    • More food to cities powered the Industrial Revolution of the 19th Century
    • More of the environment was changed for agriculture (many acres of trees cut for farming)
    • Less peasants more prosperous farmers


Industrialization of Europe





Effects of Industrial Revolution

  • Wealth of entrepreneurs grew and the working class had a poor, laborious life

  • Growth of cities

    • Rapid, unsanitary, and dysfunctional growth of cities around factories
    • Lack of housing leads to horrid slums and cramped conditions
      • Some filthy and unsanitary conditions were alleviated with further industrialization, in which systems such as public sewers and reliable water sources were created
  • Rapid urbanization: More people move to cities

    • More workers
    • Large growth in population
    • Greater industrialization led to further enclosures on land, forcing people off their land and into the cities
  • New ways of thought

    • David Ricardo: “The Iron Law of Wages” and the “Labor Theory of Value”
    • Socialism: Equal distribution of wealth
    • Communism: Karl Marx and Frederick Engels against the shocking conditions of industrialization. Wrote The Communist Manifesto
  • Reform and Legislation to certain aspects of industrial work

    • Factory Acts of 1833, 1842, and 1847
  • Better transportation, agriculture, and communication

  • Advances electronically, as well as in other areas, such as the medical field, the press, and industry



The World Fair

  • The first was known as:

    • The 1851 Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of All Nations
    • To showcase Great Britain and its colony’s technology and new products
      • Allowed other nations to showcase to make the exhibition “international”
      • Showcased inventions such as the grain reaper and Indian products
  • Held at London in its famous structure: The Crystal Palace

    • The event was originally suggested by Prince Albert and Henry Cole (a civil servant and an inventor)
    • Structure was built by Joseph Paxton
      • A building created of glass and cast iron, plants, exhibits, and sculptures adorned the walkways in the hall
      • Destroyed by fire in 1936
    • 32 countries participated
    • 17,000 exhibitors
    • 6,039,000 people in attendance
  • Click link to see every expo since 1851 to 2012!

    • http://www.expomuseum.com/1851/


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