Chapter 4 The Road to Independence The French & Indian War


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Chapter 4 The Road to Independence


The French & Indian War



French & Indian War

  • Who - British & their colonists vs. French & their Indian Allies.

  • When - 1754-1763

  • Where - North America & Europe

  • **How would this conflict lead to the Revolution…



Rivalry Between Britain and France

  • Rivalry between 2 nations began as soon as Britain and France began to explore and colonize in N. America

  • Colonization locations of each would lead to trouble.



Rivalry between Britain & France

  • France

  • France's influence in North America was tied to the fur trade -- they set up trading posts in Canada and around the Great Lakes, and maintained relationships with the native Indians. 



Inevitable conflict

  • In the 1750's, France and Britain were both building empires, and came to blows over the land between their American settlements -- the Ohio River Valley. 

  • G. Washington map



  • However, the Indians also called this land home, and they would play a valuable role in the war by tipping the balance of power in favor of one of the European empires.



  • British policies that came out of French and Indian War like taxation and land treaties would spark the American Revolution. 



French and Indian Army

  • Strategy - guerrilla warfare

  • The Indians were mostly on the French side since they made friends with French trappers.

  • French did not destroy Indian land

  • French-Indian side won a lot of battles fought in the wilderness



The British Army

  • Majority of British army consisted of British soldiers.

  • European style of warfare proved unsuccessful in North America.

  • Gen. Braddock said on his deathbed the British would have to adapt new ways to be successful

  • Did not have the support of Indians b/c of past history.



George Washington

  • Meanwhile, the war would also provide a training ground for one of the United States' greatest leaders -- George Washington. 



George Washington



Albany Plan of Union

  • Met in Albany, New York in 1754

  • Delegates suggested that the American colonies form an alliance with the Iroquois.

  • Another plan of the meeting was to work out a unified war effort in the northern colonies.

  • Ben Franklin called for a grand council of delegates from each colony to work together. Passed by the delegates, rejected by the colonies who feared too much power with central government.

  • The Albany Plan of Union was the first suggestion that the colonies unite to form a federal government.



The War…France wins early

  • British commander in chief, General Edward Braddock, appointed George Washington to serve as his aide. In 1755 French and Indian forces ambushed the British near Ft. Duquense. Washington’s leadership saved the British form disaster. For the next 2 years, the French and Indian war was fought on the frontier.



  • ... Soon their confidence would be replaced by panic and terror. General Braddock himself had four horses shot out from under him, he fell with the fifth, mortally wounded. The battle was lost. Tattered remnants of Braddock’s army fled back across the river. Braddock, badly bleeding, was loaded with two other wounded officers and taken from the battle ground, He died within days of the battle.



The War…Goes Global

  • In 1756 fighting between Britain and France spread to Europe and became known as the Seven Years’ War. Britian’s allies fought the French in Europe. Britain’s Prime Minister William Pitt sent most of Britain’s forces to North America and India to fight the French



More about William Pitt

  • William Pitt is often credited with securing Britain’s leading position as a colonial power through victory in the F/I war. Pitt insisted on huge expenditures as well as young bright generals to fortify his army



The War…Britain takes control! Battle of Quebec

  • September 1759, the war took a dramatic and decisive turn on the Plains of Abraham just outside Quebec. Under the cover of night, British troops under General Wolfe scaled the high cliffs that protected the city. In a short battle, but deadly battle the British won.



Treaty of Paris

  • The Treaty of Paris in 1763 ended the French and Indian War and forced France to relinquish to Great Britain all her lands extending westward to the Mississippi River.




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