Chemotherapy


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Chemotherapy

  • Chemotherapy

  • Radiation

    • Ionizing radiation to kill malignant cells
  • Surgery

    • Physical removal of cancerous tissues


Chemotherapy

  • Chemotherapy

  • Radiation

  • Surgery

    • Usual surgical complications and infection




Specific strand of bacteria not harmful to human cells

  • Specific strand of bacteria not harmful to human cells

  • Can be slowly and completely eliminated from body

  • Grow in anaerobic, acidic regions, like those present in tumors, a thousand times faster than any other part of the body

  • Well known genetic makeup (since very similar to E.Coli)



Salmonella contains a cellular pathway that controls the injection of proteins into human cells

  • Salmonella contains a cellular pathway that controls the injection of proteins into human cells

  • Through genetic engineering, these pathways can be modified to produce cytotoxic, anti-cancer proteins



Cytotoxins must not be released into healthy cells

  • Cytotoxins must not be released into healthy cells

  • Drugs must be released only when attached to a promoter molecule specifically present in tumor cells

  • Immune system response must be suppressed towards the engineered Salmonella cells



These genetically engineered Salmonella bacteria have not been tested for tumor therapy in humans, but tests in mice are very promising

  • These genetically engineered Salmonella bacteria have not been tested for tumor therapy in humans, but tests in mice are very promising

  • Salmonella was found to be more effective at cytotoxin delivery than previously tested E. Coli cells





Isolating biological circuits are far more difficult than isolating electrical systems

  • Isolating biological circuits are far more difficult than isolating electrical systems

    • directed evolution must be used as a trial-and-error process to make sure that even though some biological circuits will interfere with others
  • Genetically Engineering strains of cells is very time consuming and parts of genetic code must be built from scratch each time

  • Many organizations (like the ETC group and Friends of the Earth) are completely against the synthetic biology field as a whole



In January 2013, scientists from Imperial College in England found a way to mass-produce genetic parts of simple organisms

  • In January 2013, scientists from Imperial College in England found a way to mass-produce genetic parts of simple organisms

  • This could solve the problems of time consumption and extra work needed for the development of engineered cells



"Discovery in Synthetic Biology Takes Us a Step Closer to New 'Industrial Revolution'" ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 31 Jan. 2013. Web. 28 Mar. 2013.

  • "Discovery in Synthetic Biology Takes Us a Step Closer to New 'Industrial Revolution'" ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 31 Jan. 2013. Web. 28 Mar. 2013.

  • Nabil, Arrach. "Engineering Salmonella for Lung Cancer Therapy." TRDRP Grant. Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, 2007. Web. 28 Mar. 2013.

  • Pennisi, Elizabeth. "111 Organizations Call for Synthetic Biology Moratorium." ScienceInsider. N.p., 13 Mar. 2012. Web. 28 Mar. 2013.

  • Prindle, Arthur, Jangir Selimkhanov, Tal Danino, Phillip Samayoa, Anna Goldberg, SangeetaN. Bhatia, and Jeff Hasty. "Genetic Circuits in Salmonella Typhimurium." National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 09 Aug. 2012. Web. 28 Mar. 2013.

  • Trafton, Anne. "MIT Team Builds Most Complex Synthetic Biology Circuit Yet." MIT's News. MIT News Office, 7 Oct. 2012. Web. 28 Mar. 2013.




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