Colony: a territory controlled by another country. Colony: a territory controlled by another country


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Colony: A territory controlled by another country.

  • Colony: A territory controlled by another country.

  • Empire: A network of colonies controlled by a single country.

  • Imperialism: A country extending its control over other countries, often using economic or military means.

  • Silk Road: The route travelled by Europeans crossing through Asia and Eastern Europe used for trading.



When Europeans first came to North America they created new settlements called colonies.

  • When Europeans first came to North America they created new settlements called colonies.

  • The first colonists in Canada came from France.



Empires are networks of colonies controlled by a single country (aka the home country).

  • Empires are networks of colonies controlled by a single country (aka the home country).



Colonies had no independence.

  • Colonies had no independence.

  • The home country was responsible for decisions regarding economics and politics. This system of control of is called Imperialism.



For centuries, much of the world was ruled by imperial powers.

  • For centuries, much of the world was ruled by imperial powers.

  • It was within this framework that Canada became a country.

  • In this chapter we’re going to investigate why

  • France was interested in building a colony in North America.



Why Did European Explorers First Come to North America?

  • Why Did European Explorers First Come to North America?

  • Please complete the “Know” and “Wonder” columns of the chart on page 5 of your Chapter 2 booklet.



People began arriving in the land we now call Canada over 1000 years ago.

  • People began arriving in the land we now call Canada over 1000 years ago.

  • The first people to arrive here were....



People began arriving in the land we now call Canada over 1000 years ago.

  • People began arriving in the land we now call Canada over 1000 years ago.

  • The first people to arrive here were.... The Norse from Scandinavia.



In the 140o’s, sailors from Spain, Portugal and possibly England crossed the Atlantic to catch fish of the shores of today`s Newfoundland and Labrador.

  • In the 140o’s, sailors from Spain, Portugal and possibly England crossed the Atlantic to catch fish of the shores of today`s Newfoundland and Labrador.

  • These fishermen were followed by many other Europeans who came across as explorers and colonists.



For centuries, the countries of Europe and Asia traded with one another.

  • For centuries, the countries of Europe and Asia traded with one another.

  • France, England, Spain, Portugal and the Netherlands looked to India, China, Japan and Indonesia for what kinds of goods?



For centuries, the countries of Europe and Asia traded with one another.

  • For centuries, the countries of Europe and Asia traded with one another.

  • France, England, Spain, Portugal and the Netherlands looked to India, China, Japan and Indonesia for what kinds of goods?

    • Spices
    • Tea
    • Silk
    • Porcelain
    • Gems


To bring these goods home, the Europeans travelled a route known as the Silk Road.

  • To bring these goods home, the Europeans travelled a route known as the Silk Road.

  • This route became dangerous because ambush parties would often attack the traders either charging a tax or stealing their goods.

  • By the 1400’s the Europeans were eager to find a new route to Asia, preferably by water.



In 1492, Queen Isabella of Spain sent Christopher Columbus west across the Atlantic is search of a new silk road.

  • In 1492, Queen Isabella of Spain sent Christopher Columbus west across the Atlantic is search of a new silk road.

  • His voyages led to the European awareness of the American continents.



Why did the imperial countries of Europe want to expand their empires?

  • Why did the imperial countries of Europe want to expand their empires?



Why did the imperial countries of Europe want to expand their empires?

  • Why did the imperial countries of Europe want to expand their empires?

  • Economics

  • Competition

  • Religion

  • Curiosity



1. Economics

  • 1. Economics

  • Europeans set up colonies so they could claim the resources for themselves. Ex: Fur



2. Competition

  • 2. Competition

  • Countries of Europe were at competition with each other.

  • The more colonies (and land) that a country controlled, the more power and prestige it had.



3. Religion

  • 3. Religion

  • The Catholics (France) and the Protestants (England) wanted to spread their version of Christianity to other parts of the world.



4. Curiosity

  • 4. Curiosity

  • Europeans were curious about the rest of the world.

  • New technologies made travelling farther than they ever had before possible.



You are a European explorer in the 1500’s. Write a journal entry in which you explain why you feel it is a good idea to sail to North America and establish a colony there.

  • You are a European explorer in the 1500’s. Write a journal entry in which you explain why you feel it is a good idea to sail to North America and establish a colony there.

  •  You must include ideas/reasons for all four reasons why Europeans came to North America.

      • Economics
      • Competition
      • Religion
      • Curiosity




JOURNAL OF A EUROPEAN EXPLORER

  • JOURNAL OF A EUROPEAN EXPLORER

  • Example



Jacques Cartier: Explored the Gulf of St.Lawrence making first contact with the Mi’kmaq.

  • Jacques Cartier: Explored the Gulf of St.Lawrence making first contact with the Mi’kmaq.



Looking at Canada today, how do we know France has played an important role in developing Canada?

  • Looking at Canada today, how do we know France has played an important role in developing Canada?



Looking at Canada today, how do we know France has played an important role in developing Canada?

  • Looking at Canada today, how do we know France has played an important role in developing Canada?



Looking at Canada today, how do we know France has played an important role in developing Canada?

  • Looking at Canada today, how do we know France has played an important role in developing Canada?



Looking at Canada today, how do we know France has played an important role in developing Canada?

  • Looking at Canada today, how do we know France has played an important role in developing Canada?



Looking at Canada today, how do we know France has played an important role in developing Canada?

  • Looking at Canada today, how do we know France has played an important role in developing Canada?



In 1534, the king of France sent Jacques Cartier across the Atlantic in search of a passage through North America to Asia.

  • In 1534, the king of France sent Jacques Cartier across the Atlantic in search of a passage through North America to Asia.

  • After 20 days a sea, he reached the coast of Newfoundland.



One day, Cartier and his men were exploring the shores of the St. Lawrence when they came across a group of Mi’kmaq.

  • One day, Cartier and his men were exploring the shores of the St. Lawrence when they came across a group of Mi’kmaq.

  • Cartier wrote about what happened between them in his journal.

  • This is the first written account of trade between the first nations and Europeans.





In July 1534, Cartier landed at a place he called Gaspé.

  • In July 1534, Cartier landed at a place he called Gaspé.

  • There, he met a group of Haudenosaunee led by a man named Donnacona.

  • After this meeting, Cartier took two of Donnacona’s sons on board is ship. He sailed them back to France to prove to the king what he found.



In 1535, Cartier returned with three ships, 110 men and Donnacona’s two sons.

  • In 1535, Cartier returned with three ships, 110 men and Donnacona’s two sons.

  • They guided them up the St.Lawrence River as far as Stadacona where Donnacona and his people lived.

  • Cartier and his crew decided to to stay the winter. They built a small log fort near Stadacona.



They did not have enough fresh fruit and vegetables.

  • They did not have enough fresh fruit and vegetables.

  • Many of the crew became sick and died of scurvy, a disease brought on by a lack of vitamin C.



The Haudenosaunee had a cure for scurvy . They taught the French how to make the cure from boiling pieces of white cedar into tea.

  • The Haudenosaunee had a cure for scurvy . They taught the French how to make the cure from boiling pieces of white cedar into tea.

  • Without their help, Cartier and the rest of his men may not have survived the winter.



The Haudenosaunee told Cartier about a land northeast of their village where there were fruit trees, metals and gems.

  • The Haudenosaunee told Cartier about a land northeast of their village where there were fruit trees, metals and gems.

  • In 1536, Cartier forcibly took Donnacona and nine other villagers back to Europe.



The Haudenosaunee told Cartier about a land northeast of their village where there were fruit trees, metals and gems.

  • The Haudenosaunee told Cartier about a land northeast of their village where there were fruit trees, metals and gems.

  • In 1536, Cartier forcibly took Donnacona and nine other villagers back to Europe.

  • So they could tell the king about the riches in North America.

  • He hoped this information would convince the king to pay for another cross-Atlantic trip.



Cartier returned to north America in 1542 to set up a colony along the St. Lawrence River.

  • Cartier returned to north America in 1542 to set up a colony along the St. Lawrence River.

  • By this time, all but one of the Haudenosaunee Cartier had taken to Europe died. Cartier told the Hauenosaunee that everyone else was well and living in Europe.



Cartier returned to north America in 1542 to set up a colony along the St. Lawrence River.

  • Cartier returned to north America in 1542 to set up a colony along the St. Lawrence River.

  • By this time, all but one of the Haudenosaunee Cartier had taken to Europe died. Cartier told the Hauenosaunee that that everyone else was well and living in Europe.

  • Written accounts say they did not believe him and as a result were hostile toward the French.



After another terrible winter, the French colonists decided to return to Europe.

  • After another terrible winter, the French colonists decided to return to Europe.

  • Cartier took samples of what he believed were gold and diamonds with him. But it turned out they were worthless pyrite (fools gold) and quartz.

  • Although he was not successful in establishing a permanent colony in North America, Cartier did succeed in gathering a great deal of important information about the land.



France Takes an Interest in North America (pg 36-38)

  • France Takes an Interest in North America (pg 36-38)

  • Based on Cartier’s journal entry on page 36, what suggests that the Mi’kmaq had traded before? (3pts) With whom do you think they might have traded? (1 pt)

  • How did the Haudenosaunee help Cartier and his men? (1 pt)

  • Why did Cartier take the natives back to Europe in 1536? (2 pts)

  • How did Cartier fail as an explorer? How did he succeed? (2 pts)



Discuss with the person beside you:

  • Discuss with the person beside you:

  • How would you feel if strangers came to your school, raised a flag and claimed the school for themselves?

  • How would the newcomers describe

  • their actions?

  • How would you respond to such an event?



The Haudenosaunee had lived in the Great Lakes – St. Lawrence lowlands for as long as anyone can remember.

  • The Haudenosaunee had lived in the Great Lakes – St. Lawrence lowlands for as long as anyone can remember.

  • They controlled travel along the river and governed the surrounding lands.

  • However, when Cartier arrived at Gaspé, he and his men raised a wooden cross with Vive le Roi de France! (Long Live the King of France) across the rop.





  • With a partner, role play the encounter between Cartier and Donnacona as Cartier raised the cross at Gaspé.

  • Include why you think Cartier felt justified in raising the cross and why Donnacona felt justified in objecting.



Make notes: Include a) facts about the situation/event, b) your character’s perspective, c) how your character feels and d) how your character acts (voice, gestures, etc).

  • Make notes: Include a) facts about the situation/event, b) your character’s perspective, c) how your character feels and d) how your character acts (voice, gestures, etc).

  • Dialogue: Decide if you are going to read from a script or make up the dialogue as you go along.

  • Respect: Remember to be respectful of cultures.





Monopoly: When only one company or group is allowed to sell or trade a product in a certain area.

  • Monopoly: When only one company or group is allowed to sell or trade a product in a certain area.



Jacques Cartier’s settlement failed but the French did not completely forget about North America;

  • Jacques Cartier’s settlement failed but the French did not completely forget about North America;

    • Fishing fleets still returned to North America.
    • Fur traders still came to trade with First Nations trappers.
  • France began to build North American colonies at Acadia and Québec.



By the early 1600’s, the demand for furs in Europe was growing.

  • By the early 1600’s, the demand for furs in Europe was growing.

  • King Louis XIII wanted to be the most powerful ruler in Europe and needed to expand France’s colonial empire to do so.

  • The French king, Louis XIII, decided that France should build a colony in North America. That way they would have access to the abundant supply of furs.



Resources from the colonies would also give France a military advantage.

  • Resources from the colonies would also give France a military advantage.

  • The king realised that building a colony would be very expensive for him to build and support.

  • He decided to let someone else pay for it.

  • The king granted a trade monopoly to a group of merchants.



  • A trade monopoly, NOT

  • This meant that only merchants within the group holding the monopoly would be allowed to trade for furs in the colony.

  • In return, the merchants agreed to build settlements in North America and find French citizens to live in them.

















France Expands Its Empire (pg 39-42)

  • France Expands Its Empire (pg 39-42)

  • 5) What are the three main benefits of France building more colonies in North America? (3)

  • 6) Describe Acadia. Include:

  • a) Who founded it (2)

  • b) Where it was located (1)

  • c) How the Mi’kmaq felt about the settlers (2)

  • d) Who the “Acadians” were (1 pt)

  • 7) Why did the French colonists choose Quebec’s location? How did things work out for them? (2)



Coureur de bois: A Canadian trader (“runner of the woods”) who paddled on long journeys into the wilderness to trade for furs with the First Nations.

  • Coureur de bois: A Canadian trader (“runner of the woods”) who paddled on long journeys into the wilderness to trade for furs with the First Nations.

  • Métis: People of mixed First Nations and European ancestry.



Aside from the official explorers, the first people to leave the settlements of New France and begin roaming the countryside were the coureurs de bois.

  • Aside from the official explorers, the first people to leave the settlements of New France and begin roaming the countryside were the coureurs de bois.



They were a unique group of adventurers.

  • They were a unique group of adventurers.

  • They lived for long periods of time with the First Nations.

  • Many married First Nations women, and became parents to the Métis.

  • They learned to speak the First Nations’ languages and how to build birch bark canoes.

  • They also learned many other survival skills.



  • Why do you think the job of a Coureur de Bois was desired by many French men?





Their main interest was fur trapping, but they also acted as guides and interpreters for the French traders.

  • Their main interest was fur trapping, but they also acted as guides and interpreters for the French traders.

  • In this way, they were responsible for much of the early European exploration of the continent.



In 1610, the French and Wendat agreed to a cultural exchange.

  • In 1610, the French and Wendat agreed to a cultural exchange.

  • Brûlé went to live with the Wendat, and a Wendat man named Savignon went to live in France.



Brûlé gained an appreciation for the Wendat way of life, learned their language and practised their customs. He travelled with the Wendat and came to know their territory.

  • Brûlé gained an appreciation for the Wendat way of life, learned their language and practised their customs. He travelled with the Wendat and came to know their territory.

  • He was the first European to travel up the Ottawa River into Georgian Bay.



Savignon learned to speak French but was eager to return to North America.

  • Savignon learned to speak French but was eager to return to North America.

  • When he returned he did not describe France as a good place:

    • Children were treated badly.
    • Beggars were living in the streets, arguing loudly with one another.


Radisson came to New France in 1650 as a boy and lived for two years among the Mohawk as a teenager before returning to Québec.

  • Radisson came to New France in 1650 as a boy and lived for two years among the Mohawk as a teenager before returning to Québec.

  • While living with the Mohawk he learned to speak their language and survive in the woods.

  • It was only natural that he become a coureur de bois.



In 1659, he joined des Groseilliers on a trading trip deep into the Lake Superior.

  • In 1659, he joined des Groseilliers on a trading trip deep into the Lake Superior.

  • No Europeans had ever been there before.



Everywhere they went, they were welcomed by the First Nations.

  • Everywhere they went, they were welcomed by the First Nations.

  • As they travelled their knowledge of the fur country grew. They also gave French names to some of the settlements, lakes, rivers and mountains they encountered.



Everywhere they went, they were welcomed by the First Nations.

  • Everywhere they went, they were welcomed by the First Nations.

  • As they travelled their knowledge of the fur country grew. They also gave French names to some of the settlements, lakes, rivers and mountains they encountered.

  • They were claiming the land for France.



In 1670, they travelled to Hudson Bay because the First Nations people had told them it was rich in fur-bearing animals.

  • In 1670, they travelled to Hudson Bay because the First Nations people had told them it was rich in fur-bearing animals.

  • Later that year The Hudson Bay Company was founded as a result of their accomplishments.



King Louis XIV: King of France also known as the “Sun King” because he was all powerful. He was so forceful in acquiring colonies that other countries of Europe united against him.

  • King Louis XIV: King of France also known as the “Sun King” because he was all powerful. He was so forceful in acquiring colonies that other countries of Europe united against him.

  • Sovereign Council: A government with three officials: a governor, an intendant, and a bishop, set up by King Louis XIV to govern the colony of New France.



Habitants: A Francophone farmer of New France.

  • Habitants: A Francophone farmer of New France.

  • Jesuits: An order of missionaries who came to North America to convert First Nations peoples to the Catholic religion.

  • Canadien(ne): A Francophone descendent of the settlers of New France living anywhere in North America, including the West (in use until about the First World War).

  • Seigneurial System: A system based on nobles (or seigneurs) who rented land to farmers (or habitants).



As a colony, New France depended on France for its survival.

  • As a colony, New France depended on France for its survival.

  • France provided: Colonists, supplies and military protection

  • New France supplied: Resources such as furs and fish

  • The colony of New France made France richer and more powerful.



In 1663, King Louis XIV took control of the colony from the merchants.

  • In 1663, King Louis XIV took control of the colony from the merchants.



He established a Sovereign Council to govern the colony.

  • He established a Sovereign Council to govern the colony.





The royal government paid the colony’s expenses.

  • The royal government paid the colony’s expenses.

  • The government of New France was all powerful and the colonists had to follow the rules and laws established by the Sovereign Council.

  • The courts received complaints from the colonists but overall, the people enjoyed greater freedom in New France.



Religion had an important place in the lives of Europeans.

  • Religion had an important place in the lives of Europeans.

  • Priests, nuns, and missionaries who went to New France helped build the colony. They held religious services, taught schools, ran hospitals and cared for the poor.

  • The colonists supported the church by donating a portion of their income, called a tithe.





The most important goal of the church was to spread the Catholic faith.

  • The most important goal of the church was to spread the Catholic faith.

  • The missionaries came to New France to convert the First Nations peoples to their religion.



The missionaries travelled into the interior of the continent.

  • The missionaries travelled into the interior of the continent.

  • As they travelled they wrote accounts of their travels and experiences. Many of these writing have survived through the centuries and are important historical documents.





The fur trade and farming.

  • The fur trade and farming.



The social structure was based on a Seigneurial System.

  • The social structure was based on a Seigneurial System.

  • The king gave large tracts of land along the St.Lawrence to the nobles aka seigneurs.

  • Each seigneur had to find colonists aka habitants to settle the land. These habitants rented strips of land and set up farms.

  • Seigneurs and habitants had duties which were protected by law.

    • Habitants had to give a portion of their crop and pay other fees to the seigneur.
    • The seigneur had to build a church and mill on his land.


The king knew the Seigneural System would help populate New France.

  • The king knew the Seigneural System would help populate New France.

  • If the seigneur did not find tenants to farm is land, he would not make any money.



Please complete the “Royal Takeover” and “Catholic Church” sheets in your Chapter 2 booklet.

  • Please complete the “Royal Takeover” and “Catholic Church” sheets in your Chapter 2 booklet.



  • Fille du Roi: The women known as the “king’s daughters” who were sent to New France to become wives.



Class Notes:

  • Class Notes:

  • The bishop led the church.

  • The church operated the schools and hospitals.

  • The church tried to convert First Nations peoples.

  • Missionaries travelled deep into the interior of the continent.

  • Important historical information was provided through journals and diaries.



In the early days, New France was simply a place for trading furs run by merchants.

  • In the early days, New France was simply a place for trading furs run by merchants.

  • They had little interest in building settlements.

  • Few people wanted to move there, and the colony failed to prosper.



  • Why was it so difficult for New France’s population to grow?



Nobody wanted to leave France to live there.

  • Nobody wanted to leave France to live there.

  • Death and disease

  • There were hardly any WOMEN!

  • What do you see as the biggest problem?



Between 1665 and 1673, the King sent approximately 900 single young women and girls to New France to become wives.

  • Between 1665 and 1673, the King sent approximately 900 single young women and girls to New France to become wives.



When they married, the king gave them:

  • When they married, the king gave them:



Women worked hard alongside their husbands in the fields.

  • Women worked hard alongside their husbands in the fields.

  • They cared for their homes and children and helped manage the family finances.

  • Girls in New France received a better education than they would have in France.

  • Within 14 years, the colony’s population grew from 3200 to 10 000.

  • These 10 000 colonists are the original Canadiens.



What are the advantages and disadvantages of getting married in New France?

  • What are the advantages and disadvantages of getting married in New France?




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