Computer engineering

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THEME: Operating system.
1. User Interface.
2. Input and Output.
3. Kinds of OS.

User Interface.

Operating system presentation refers to how the operating system interacts with the user, applications and hardware. It is the user interface – the part of the operating system that the user sees and interacts with. The operating system provides users with different interfaces, some of which include Command Line Interface (CLI), Graphical User Interface (GUI), and Touchscreen Interface.

Command Line Interface (CLI): It is a text-based interface where users enter commands and the operating system responds accordingly. The CLI is usually used by advanced users who prefer working with typed commands.

Graphical User Interface (GUI): It is a graphical interface that presents users with icons, images, and windows to operate the system. The GUI is more appealing to novice users who prefer to interact with the operating system using visual cues.

Input and Output

  • An operating system (OS) is a collection of system software that manages computer hardware resources and offers general services to computer programs. One of the central components of an operating system is the kernel, which is responsible for managing system memory, processing requests from software programs, and controlling input/output devices.

  • An OS handles software applications (programs) by allocating system resources and overseeing interactions with input/output (I/O) devices. An operating system also organizes files, directories, processes, and memory, and provides security and protection features.

  • Additionally, the OS provides services to software applications such as task scheduling, memory management, device management, file management, networking, and security. Today, popular operating systems include Windows, Mac OS, Linux, Android, and iOS.

  • Some key features and functions of an operating system include:

  • - Memory management: Allocating memory space to various programs, handling memory resources, and reducing memory fragmentation.

  • - Processor management: Managing process scheduling, allocating the CPU, and monitoring system resources.

  • - File management: Creating, storing and deleting files and folders, and maintaining a file system.

  • - Security: Controlling access to resources and protecting the system from malware attacks.

  • - I/O device management: Managing access to input/output devices such as keyboards, mice, printers, and scanners.

  • - Networking: Providing communication capabilities between different computers, enabling file sharing, and managing network connections.

Kinds of OS

  • Operating systems (OS) are the backbone of computers and play a crucial role in managing computer hardware and software resources. They are responsible for managing the various tasks and processes running on a computer, allocating system resources, and providing a user interface to operate the hardware.

  • The primary function of an operating system is to provide a platform for running applications and software. The OS provides a layer of abstraction that separates the hardware from application software, enabling the software to interact with the hardware without knowing the details of the hardware implementation.

  • There are several types of operating systems, each with its own set of features and functionalities. Some of the most popular operating systems include:

  • 1. Windows OS: It is one of the most widely used operating systems worldwide. Windows OS provides a user-friendly interface and is designed to work on a variety of hardware platforms.

  • 2. Linux OS: Linux is an open-source operating system that is popular among developers and programmers. It is highly customizable and can be adapted to suit individual user requirements.

  • 3. macOS: macOS is the operating system developed by Apple Inc. for their product line of Macintosh computers. It is known for its security and performance.

  • 4. Chrome OS: Chrome OS is developed by Google and is designed to work with their Chromebook series of laptops. It is primarily a cloud-based operating system, and most of the applications are web-based.

  • Operating systems are critical for the security and stability of a computer system. They provide security features such as file encryption, access control, and virus detection, which help protect the user's data and privacy. Additionally, operating systems come with a range of built-in tools that can help users manage their computer systems more efficiently, such as disk cleanup, performance optimization, and system restoration.

  • In conclusion, operating systems are the foundation of modern computing and are essential for running applications and software. Each operating system is unique and has its own set of strengths and weaknesses. Understanding the different types of operating systems is crucial for selecting the right one for your needs.

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