Construct means to build up. Construct means to build up


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Construct means to build up.

  • Construct means to build up.

  • Forces that build up features on the surface of the Earth.

    • Sediment (Deltas, sand dunes, etc.)
    • Volcanoes (makes Islands)
    • Tectonic Plates (Mountains)
    • Crust deformation (Folding or Faulting)


The process of sediment being carried causes new landforms.

  • The process of sediment being carried causes new landforms.

    • Wind – sand transported by the wind creates sand dunes.
    • Water – bits of soil and rock can be carried downstream and deposited causing deltas.
    • Ice – glaciers pick up and move rock and other materials, depositing it elsewhere.








http://app.discoveryeducation.com/search?Ntt=volcano+erupt



A volcano is an opening in the Earth's surface or crust, which allows hot, molten rock, ash and gases to escape from deep below the surface.

  • A volcano is an opening in the Earth's surface or crust, which allows hot, molten rock, ash and gases to escape from deep below the surface.

  • Volcanic activity involving the extrusion of rock tends to form mountains or features like mountains over a period of time.

  • Magma (inside)

  • Lava (outside)



There are two main types of volcanoes: shield and composite.

  • There are two main types of volcanoes: shield and composite.

  • Shield volcanoes are usually found in the middle of tectonic plates. Islands like Hawaii are good examples of this type of volcano. These are making new islands every year…takes a long time. (Hawaiian Islands)

  • There's a hole in the middle of the plate and magma moves out and piles on top of itself, slowly building a mountain of rock. (Katmai)



1. Magma reservoir 2. Country rock 3. Conduit (pipe) 4. Base 5. Sill 6. Branch pipe 7. Layers of ash emitted by the volcano 8. Flank 9. Layers of lava emitted by the volcano 10. Throat 11. Parasitic cone 12. Lava flow 13. Vent 14. Crater 15. Ash cloud

  • 1. Magma reservoir 2. Country rock 3. Conduit (pipe) 4. Base 5. Sill 6. Branch pipe 7. Layers of ash emitted by the volcano 8. Flank 9. Layers of lava emitted by the volcano 10. Throat 11. Parasitic cone 12. Lava flow 13. Vent 14. Crater 15. Ash cloud



http://app.discoveryeducation.com/search?Ntt=hotspot

  • http://app.discoveryeducation.com/search?Ntt=hotspot

  • United Streaming-Hot Spot



Mountains can be formed because of moving tectonic plates.

  • Mountains can be formed because of moving tectonic plates.





Faults are cracks in the Earth’s crust.

  • Faults are cracks in the Earth’s crust.

  • The surface of the Earth is made up of tectonic plates that are floating on magma (molten rock).

  • It is along these fault lines that earthquakes and volcanoes occur.



Destruct means to destroy.

  • Destruct means to destroy.

  • Forces that destroy features on the Earth’s surface.



An earthquake is a phenomenon that results from the sudden release of stored energy in the Earth’s crust.

  • An earthquake is a phenomenon that results from the sudden release of stored energy in the Earth’s crust.

  • It is caused by a strain on the fault lines of the Earth’s crust. When the energy of the strain is released, similar to a rubber band snapping, the earthquake occurs.

  • At the Earth's surface, earthquakes cause a shaking or displacement of the ground and sometimes cause the ground to break apart and change shape. Earthquake Animation!





Weathering is the breakdown of the continents and the land around you. The breaking down of these rocks and land due to forces such as wind and water is weathering. When it rains, rocks are washed down a mountain or down a stream. Soils are washed away. The ocean beats against a cliff and breaks it apart. If it is moved elsewhere it is called erosion.

  • Weathering is the breakdown of the continents and the land around you. The breaking down of these rocks and land due to forces such as wind and water is weathering. When it rains, rocks are washed down a mountain or down a stream. Soils are washed away. The ocean beats against a cliff and breaks it apart. If it is moved elsewhere it is called erosion.



Mechanical weathering is the process of breaking big rocks into little ones. This process usually happens near the surface of the planet. Temperature also affects the land. The cool nights and hot days always cause things to expand and contract. That movement can cause rocks to crack and break apart. Roots and plants also push into the rocks and break them apart. They act like wedges and push the rocks apart. Little animals also help by burrowing and digging through the ground.

  • Mechanical weathering is the process of breaking big rocks into little ones. This process usually happens near the surface of the planet. Temperature also affects the land. The cool nights and hot days always cause things to expand and contract. That movement can cause rocks to crack and break apart. Roots and plants also push into the rocks and break them apart. They act like wedges and push the rocks apart. Little animals also help by burrowing and digging through the ground.



Chemical weathering includes the effect of weathering on molecules and atoms. As with all chemistry, the greater the surface area of an object, the more chemical reactions can take place. For these chemical reactions to happen in nature, moisture, and heat must be present.

  • Chemical weathering includes the effect of weathering on molecules and atoms. As with all chemistry, the greater the surface area of an object, the more chemical reactions can take place. For these chemical reactions to happen in nature, moisture, and heat must be present.



Biological weathering would include the effect of animals and plants on the landscape. This is more than roots digging in and wedging rocks. Biological weathering is the actual molecular breakdown of minerals.

  • Biological weathering would include the effect of animals and plants on the landscape. This is more than roots digging in and wedging rocks. Biological weathering is the actual molecular breakdown of minerals.



More than buildings collapse when an earthquake hits. The land itself is totally changed. You can see scars across the landscape. Those scars appear when one block of land has moved compared to another. Roads often change their placement. They either become uneven or just crack. Streams can also change course. Sometimes rocks can fall and block the stream. Other times, the land is even lowered in certain areas. When it's lower, it's easier for the water to flow in the new direction .

  • More than buildings collapse when an earthquake hits. The land itself is totally changed. You can see scars across the landscape. Those scars appear when one block of land has moved compared to another. Roads often change their placement. They either become uneven or just crack. Streams can also change course. Sometimes rocks can fall and block the stream. Other times, the land is even lowered in certain areas. When it's lower, it's easier for the water to flow in the new direction .



San Andreas Fault line is 810 miles and runs along California. It separates the tectonic boundary of the Pacific and North America boundary.

  • San Andreas Fault line is 810 miles and runs along California. It separates the tectonic boundary of the Pacific and North America boundary.



Humans try to CONTROL these forces.

  • Humans try to CONTROL these forces.

    • seismological studies
    • flood control (dams, levees, storm drain management, etc.)
    • beach reclamation (Georgia coastal islands)


Scientists study earthquakes so that they can understand how they work and so that they can try to predict future quakes.

  • Scientists study earthquakes so that they can understand how they work and so that they can try to predict future quakes.

  • Earthquakes are recorded by instruments called “seismographs”.

  • A short wiggly line means a small earthquake and a large one means a large earthquake.



These are waves of energy that travel through Earth’s layers studied by geologist.

  • These are waves of energy that travel through Earth’s layers studied by geologist.

  • Primary (P waves) travel fast

  • Secondary waves (S waves) travel through solids





The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers began constructing dams in Georgia for navigation and flood control in the 1940s and 1950s under the Flood Control Act of 1944 and the Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act of 1954.

  • The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers began constructing dams in Georgia for navigation and flood control in the 1940s and 1950s under the Flood Control Act of 1944 and the Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act of 1954.



Dams control the water flow in a stream or river.

  • Dams control the water flow in a stream or river.

  • A levee is an embankment designed to prevent the flooding of a river.

  • Storm drains are for carrying off rainfall drained from paved surfaces, roofs, etc.



Weather, waves and wind cause the coastline to wash away.

  • Weather, waves and wind cause the coastline to wash away.

  • Keeping sand dunes intact helps to keep the beaches from eroding.




































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