Culture sphere as an object of implementation the mechanisms of state management

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Kuchyn S., PhD in Economics, Associate Professor,
National University of Civil Protection of Ukraine, Kharkiv

Problem setting

The study of mechanisms features of state management the cultural sphere is connected with the various problems, and, above all, with the effective functioning of the sphere of culture in conditions of market type economy, with the influence of negative factors which cause socio-economic crises, with reforming the system of state management in the sphere of culture and implementation the integrated nationwide programs of development the socio-cultural sphere. The study of the mechanisms of state control in the sphere of culture is necessary to create favorable conditions for the training of future profile specialists and for their further employment, on the quality content of which the future development of the entire sociocultural state sphere depends. In conditions of development and complication the socio-economic relations in the national economy of Ukraine, special attention should be given to establishment the effective mechanism of state regulation the cultural sphere development, therefore, a significant part of the costs for its maintenance and development lays on the state authorities and local self-governments. The necessity of solution the urgent problems in Ukrainian society, improvement the mechanisms of state control above sphere of culture, taking into account the specifics of formation and development the competitive environment in the socio-cultural sphere, have determined the relevance of the research topic.

Recent research and publications analysis

Regardless of the topic researches relevance and its essentiality for socio-humanitarian and economic development of Ukraine, it should be noted relatively slight popularity for problem of the cultural sphere development. Managerial, financial and economic, organizational problems of development the sphere of culture do not find such a wide reflection in the scientific literature, as, for example, such problems in the sphere of material production. However, a significant contribution to study the problems of cultural sector development, the mechanisms of state regulation of its activities was made by such scholars as O. Batishcheva, B. Danylyshyn, A. Degtyar, S. Dombrovskaya, M. Zhulynsky, V. Kovalchuk, A. Kolot, O. Malysheva, A. Mol, S. Mirvoda, G. Osipova, and O. Rubinstein, G. Sklyar, G. Tulchinsky, V. Cherba and others.

Paper objective

The purpose of this article is to identify the component elements of culture and are functionally tightly-interrelated elements of economic system of the state, which have been entrusted the task of development the spiritual and moral potential of society, its labour resources; expansion the best cultural, artistic, educational achievements; creating a favorable environment for the development of national economy, as an important object of implementation the mechanisms of state governance.

Paper main body

The features of development the sphere of culture in Ukraine have almost no systematic and overall lightening, although nowadays i t’s the common view that social problems will be determinative in the new century [9, p. 144]. One of reasons for this neglect of cultural sector is that in modern society a stable idea of loss cultural sphere and inability to obtain economic benefits in this field of activity has been formed. The mission of cultural sphere is in the creation, expansion, preservation and using the cultural values, and its strategic and tactical goals are subordinated to this mission, which are usually located outside the economic plane. This causes a lack of research the problems of development the cultural sphere and mechanisms of state regulation the sphere of culture.
Since the second half of the 20-th century the problem of assessment the role of culture as a factor of development the territories and communities is a subject of research in economics, sociology, and cultural policy. A direct contribution of cultural sphere to the development of economy isn’t only assessed, but its influence on sol u- tion the problems of population employment, reducing poverty and crime; connection with the educational system and formation of human capital is analyzed [10, p. 128]. In the 70-ies of 20-th century a wide discussion concerning the nature of economic relations in the sphere of culture began to generate. In European countries the importance of culture for society, its usefulness for the new economy and social development are widely discussed. In 1966 the work of American researchers W. Baumol 148 Вісник НУЦЗУ. Серія: Державне управління. Вип. 1(6), 2017 and V. Bowen the "Performing arts: the economic dilemma" has been published [Watch 1], where first seriously one of the main problems of cultural economy has been formulated as an advance growth of prices for the factors of production in relation to the prices for cultural services (the phenomenon has been called "Baumol's disease" or "disease prices"). This work became a reasoning the necessity of state and public support for the performing arts, it became the basis for the formation of cultural economics as a separate sphere of knowledge and the beginning of research the problems of perfection the mechanisms of state regulation the cultural sphere. In 1967, French cultural scientist A. Mol in the work "Sociodynamics culture." [Watch 11] has reached the most important economic categories of cultural activities: commodity, value, cost price, price, profit, market etc. There has been cultural economics formed as a science.
Since 1980-ies the role of cultural sphere is evaluated in terms of the functional approach: culture is considered as a resource of the development processes and selfdetermination of communities; the importance of cultural resources in economic processes and in the revival of territories is been noted. One of the main goals of these approaches is the rationale for participation of state and public institutions in the functioning of the sphere of culture [10, p. 128]. At the turn of the 80s and 90s there was a search of new economic mechanisms of state regulation in the sphere of culture. In developed countries, no sphere of material production but service sector, in which the humanitarian sphere of activity and sphere of services become the main field of occupation and a source of income, started to come to the fore. Since the beginning of 90-ies the reasoning of a new role for the state has been occured in the new economic environment. The culture begins to be treated as the resource of new economy, the sources of new thinking. Experts research and map the cultural resources and cultural potential of the territories, and develop the management technologies and specific proposals on how the cultural heritage can change the image of the territory and become interesting for the local community and for tourists.
With the development trends of commercialization the culture, the states began to reveal a higher interest in formation the tools for assessment the contribution which culture makes to formation the socio-cultural aspects of people lives (e.g., the cultural identity, and tolerance). Since the middle of 1990-ies there is an active discussion the system of indicators which define the contribution of cultural sphere to the economic development of cities, regions, states and interstate institutions. One of the most popular approaches has been based on assessment the sphere of culture, in terms of contribution to creation the GDP, and on analysis the statistical indicators of the sector (amount of employees, number of organizations in the field of culture, the number of consumers, etc.) [10, p. 128-129].
Due primarily to socio-economic causes there has been the alienation of millions of citizens from the achievements of domestic and world culture. Over the last two decades there have been hundreds of libraries, clubs, bookstores closed in Ukraine; there has been concert tour activity of theatres and performing arts groups declined sharply. Today most citizens of Ukraine do not visit libraries, theatres, concerts, almost never read fiction. The only permanent channel of cultural communication for them is the TV, and for young people it is the Internet. The commercialization of TV and radio has led to the plural reduction the quantity of TV and radio programs dedicated to great culture and art, from academic to folk.
As it was noted in the Draft "Concept of the state target national and cultural program for the development of culture and art for the period until 2017," the further accumulation of problems will lead, ultimately, to significant and irreversible losses for the national cultural heritage, to the complete decline of the Ukrainian cinematography, to the continuation the crisis in book publishing, to the loss of the best art specialists in many genres of academic art, to the decline of many cultural institutions in small towns and villages, etc. [13].
There have been the culture functioning problems actual in independent Ukraine, which are related to issues of definition its place in the new system of economic relations, taking into account its features and specifics in the overall context of interaction between market and state. In recent years there have been significant changes in approaches to assessment the contribution of culture to economic development of society. The cultural sphere is seen as an important component of the national economy, the development of which requires the state integrated approach. The formation of the whole concept of state regulation and support this sector is a necessary prerequisite for effective national policy in this field [2, p. 140-141].
Analyzing the specificity of development the cultural sector as a component of social and cultural sphere, researchers consider it in two aspects. At first, in a broad sense, as a way of human’s being, as a system of pathogenetical inherited social experience. In this direction culture creates the material and spiritual environment that contributes to formation and growth the man. Secondly, in the narrow sense - as a specific area of society, which accumulates the individuals who engage in preservation and using the cultural and historic heritage, art education, children's creativity, art, performance, concert activities, organization of leisure and entertainment, amateur, ethnographic arts and crafts [See 15], and provide the specific services. In this aspect, we must distinguish three components of services sector: services of material production (transport, communications, consumer services), services of the spiritual life (education, culture), services of social sphere (trade, housing and communal services, health care). Spiritual sphere is viewed as a sphere of relations between people concerning the creation, expansion and understanding the spiritual values; as a wide complex of ideas, views, knowledges, that is, the entire range of production the consciousness (individual and social), its transformation, transformation into the individual and spiritual human’s world [16]; as the complex effects of national traditions, family, education, culture, religion, environment and other factors which make a person nicer (more humane) [14, p. 18].
With the aim of improving the accounting system of national economy in 1994 there was General classifier “The sectors of national economy of Ukraine” confirmed (now the document has lost a valid, but its analysis allows us more fully to characterize the position of socio-cultural sphere in system of national economy) in Ukraine. This document was a component part of Unified classification system and coding the technical and economic and statistical information which was being used in the information automatic control systems, tax inspections for calculation the taxes, in bodies of state registration the subjects of business and non entrepreneurship, ministries and agencies, institutions and organizations.
Industries contained the homogenous types of activities without regard to departmental or any other accessory. There were being interbranch balances developed on its basis, and it was used in analysis of the market trends and in system of national accounts. The industries were being divided into those that produced goods and provided services. "Commercial Code of Ukraine" [4] defines the industry as a complex of the whole production units, which primarily implement the identical or similar types of production activities. Such production units are characterized by the common production technology, by the fixed assets and professional skills of employees, and by the products that are produced. Nowadays the classifier "Sectors of national economy of Ukraine" hasn’t already been worked, however, depending on factor of participation in creating the social product, there are sphere of material and nonmaterial production isolated in national economy.
The attitude of national economic individual to a particular area depends on the type of his economic activity. Classification the types of economic activity is regulated by "The classifier of economic activities" on the modern stage of development the statistical information in Ukraine [8].
Socio-cultural sphere is an integral component in national economy of any country. The individuals (entities) of cultural sphere are the components of sociocultural sphere. Libraries, museums, theatres and so on should be included to the sphere of culture. According to "Classifier the types of economic activity", Parts 90 "Activities in the field of creativity, art and entertainment", 91 "The functioning of libraries, archives, museums and other cultural institutions", 92 "The gambling organization", 93 "Activity in the field of sports, organizing the recreation and entertainment" are included to Section R "Arts, sport, entertainment and recreation".
Part 90 includes the management above institutions and providing the services to satisfy the cultural and recreational needs of customers, production and executing promotion, participation in stage performances, presentations which are intended for the public survey, providing the artistic, creative and technical personnel to create an artistic production and organize the scenic performances. Part 91 includes the activities of libraries and archives, working of museums, botanical and zoological gardens, historic sights and natural reserves.
In addition, the Classifier indicates that some institutions are not related to Part 90, but they provide the cultural, entertainment services and services in the field of recreation (there are "The creation of feature films and video products and its distribution", "The film showing" (Part 59)) and are considered as such, which perform functions similar to the functions in the sphere of culture.
Entities (individuals) related to Parts 92 and 93, due to their another (in comparison with the entities (individuals) of theatrical, museum, library business) specifics are hardly to be concerned to the sphere of culture. However, 93 part includes the provision of entertainment services, which can be connected with the cultural sphere to some extent, and which are closely related to Part I " The temporary allocation and catering organization", which indicates that the amount and type of additional services which are included to this section, can vary greatly. Services are provided by the cultural sphere, can be largely an additional services, and tourism industry accumulates providing the variety of services including cultural and artistic direction.
The specifics of development the cultural sphere should be considered in terms of the relationship with the field of education. In "Classifier the types of economic activity" Section R "Education" includes the public and private education at any level and training for any profession, full or part-time, as well as on radio and TV, via the Internet and by mail. This section includes education which is provided by the different institutions within the school educational system at all levels, as well as adult education, literacy programs and so on. The Part 85, which contains the types of economic activities providing the preschool, primary, secondary, higher education, other education types and support activities in the field of education, is involved to Section R.

Conclusions of the research

The socio-cultural situation in Ukraine cannot be viewed in isolation from the state in the whole spheres of public-political, socioeconomic and intellectual life of society. It’s difficult to hope for acceleration the process of economic reforming in the country without achieving the necessary level of public spirituality [for Details, watch 7], therefore, an improvement the mechanisms of state management in the field of culture (theatrical, museum, library business), film making, tourism and education needs an actualization. There are "Culture", "Tourism" and "Education" highlighted in a special statistical topics in the official statistical information of State statistics service of Ukraine, that underlines their significance for socio-economic development of Ukraine.
The economic reasonability of modern market "depresses" the importance of entities of socio-cultural sphere. Socio-cultural reasonability is relegated to a secondary position and, sometimes, completely losing its weight, being destroyed by the primacy of material and economic benefits. Culture loses its functions of social consolidation, spiritual and moral human self-determination; its value as a guide to society of spiritual values and educator the spiritually enriched person is become more narrow. The cultural sphere and functionally related elements of education sector and recreational economy, which are responsible for development the spiritual and moral potential of society, its workforce, expansion the best cultural, artistic, educational achievements, require the implementation of improved state control mechanisms and support of public authorities and local self-governments.

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