Czech Univerzity of Life Sciences


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Czech Univerzity of Life Sciences

  • Czech Univerzity of Life Sciences

  • in Prague, Czech Republic

  • Institut of Tropics and Subtropics

  • Ministry of Agriculture and Co-operatives of ZAMBIA

  • Department of Veterinary and Livestock Development

  • MVDr. J. Holejšovsky Ph.D.


The African cattle population derives

  • The African cattle population derives

  • from three major introductions from Asia

  • (Epstein, 1957; Faulkner and Epstein, 1957; Williamson and Payne, 1977; Oliver, 1983 )

  • The first cattle introduced into Africa,

  • the humpless Hamitic longhorn (Bos taurus

  • longifrons), arrived about 5 000 BC ,

  • Ffollowed by the humpless shorthorn (Bos

  • taurus brachyceros) about 2500 years later

  • and

  • the humped zebu (Bos indicus)

  • in about 1500 B C.





The African cattle population derives

  • The African cattle population derives

  • from three major introductions from Asia

  • (Epstein, 1957; Faulkner and Epstein, 1957; Williamson and Payne, 1977; Oliver, 1983 )

  • The first cattle introduced into Africa,

  • the humpless Hamitic longhorn (Bos taurus

  • longifrons), arrived about 5 000 BC ,

  • Ffollowed by the humpless shorthorn (Bos

  • taurus brachyceros) about 2500 years later

  • and

  • the humped zebu (Bos indicus)

  • in about 1500 B C.



Two domesticated species (following the Linnæan taxonomy )

  • Two domesticated species (following the Linnæan taxonomy )

  • - The taurine cattle Bos taurus

  • - The zebu cattle Bos indicus

  • recognising that the two species are

  • fully interfertile and therefore sometimes

  • considered as subspecies by some authors.

  • The major Africa cattle groups are:

  • The humpless African taurine cattle B. taurus (longhorn and shorthorn taurines),

  • the humped African zebu B. indicus and

  • the supposedly crossbreed taurine x zebu called sanga. (The majority of the sanga have a taurine Y chromosome, therefore some authors group the sanga with the African taurine B. taurus).





Barotse are big sanga type animals with large spreading, lyre-shaped horns. The usual coat colours are brown, dark red, fawn or black,

  • Barotse are big sanga type animals with large spreading, lyre-shaped horns. The usual coat colours are brown, dark red, fawn or black,

  • Their homeland is Barotseland of West Zambia and Southeast Angola. The territory is characterized by the flood plain of the Zambezi, extending into Angola on the west. Breed status: The current estimate of the population is 793 000 (Rege 1999). According to DAD-IS (2005), population estimate in Zambia were

  • less than 100 000.



Utility:

  • Utility:

  • The Barotse are triple purpose cattle (beef, dairy and work), beef being the most important product.

  • Under better management

  • bulls weigh up to 700 (580) kg and

  • cows 485 (400 )kg

  • Age at first calving is about 44 months; lactation milk yield is 1077 litres in an average lactation length of 302 days; conception rate is 67.1% and

  • the calving interval is 620 days







  • This is a long horned Sanga , similar

  • to the Tswana of Botswana .

  • Due to historical back ground, this breed is known to have its habitat extending to as far as Kafue flood plain and Angola about 20 degrees East longitude

  • ( Curson, H.H and Thornton, R.W, 1936).





In Zambia it is found in Western Province specifically in the Zambezi flood plain and

  • In Zambia it is found in Western Province specifically in the Zambezi flood plain and

  • south- western part of North-Western Province.

  • The Barotse are kept under Kalahari woodland type of vegetation when out of flood plain, which is wide

  • spread in Western Province and south western part of North-Western Province.





The climatic conditions are those

  • The climatic conditions are those

  • of medium rainfall with hot dry season.

  • In addition to Trypanosomiasis, CBPP,

  • there are occasional outbreaks

  • of Anthrax.

  • The organisation of the beneficialies

  • in community based activities

  • to eradicate some of these major

  • diseases appear to be bearing

  • some positive results.



COAT

  • COAT

  • Colour: Multicolour (black,brown,dark,red,fawn)  

  • Hair type: Straight       

  • Hair length: Short

  • HEAD

  • Face Profile: Flat·       

  • Muzzle colour : Pigmented

  • Horns: Present

  • Horn shape: Lyre

  • Horn length: Long

  • Horn spacing: Wide

  • Horn orientation: Upward

  • Ear size: Small

  • Colour of tips: Coloured

  • Ear shape: Straight-edged

  • Ear Orientation: Lateral



BODY

  • BODY

  • Wither heights of male 120-137 cm

  • of femele 114-129 cm,

  • Body Frame: Large

  • Back profile: Hollow

  • Rump Profile: Sloping

  • Hump: Hump Orientation Erect

  • Hump Location Cervico-thoracic

  • Dewlap: Small

  • Navalflap: Small

  • Legs: Long

  • Hoofs: Dark

  • TAIL

  • Length Long

  • Thickness at the base Wide

  • Colour of the tail switch Uniform(white,black,brown)



The Angoni breed belongs to

  • The Angoni breed belongs to

  • the group of short - horned Zebus found predominatly in eastern part of Zambia and extending a little into the northern part near the border with Tanzania and Malawi.

  • Mason and Maule (1960) traced the habitat

  • of the angoni breed to between

  • 9 degrees and 14 degrees South latitude, and between

  • 30 degrees and 31 degrees East longitude.



  • The angoni are raised under

  • three climatic conditions:

  • i) warm rainy season from

  • November to April

  • ii) cool dry season from

  • May to August

  • iii) hot dry season from

  • September to October

  • .



  • The vegetation consists of

  • Miombo woodlands, with

  • brachystegia and isoberlinia

  • as a main tree spp, and a grass undercover of hyperrhenia, setaria, heteropogony, aristida and brachiaria

  • (Joshi R.,Mcluaghlin A., and Phillips W.,1957, and Black G., 1956).



  • The Angonis' are reared on an extensive system of production.

  • Under this system the health management faces a number

  • of constraints the most prevalent

  • ones being East Coast Fever,

  • a tick – borne disease and

  • Trypanosomiasis due to

  • Tsetse fly bites.







  • COAT Colour: Multicolour (black,brown,red,dun,,pied,R/W)

  • ·        Hair type: Straight

  • ·        Hair length Short

  • HEAD Face Profile: Concave

  • ·        Muzzle colour Pigmented

  • Horns: Present

  • Horn shape Straight

  • Horn length Short

  • Horn spacing Wide

  • Horn orientation Upward

  • Ear size: Small

  • Colour of tips Coloured

  • Ear shape Straight-edged

  • Ear Orientation Lateral



BODY

  • BODY

  • Body Frame: Medium

  • Back profile: Hollow

  • Rump Profile: Sloping

  • Hump: Hump Orientation Floppy

  • Hump Location Thoracic

  • Dewlap: Large

  • Naval flap: Medium,

  • Legs: Medium

  • Hoofs: Dark

  • TAIL Length Long

  • Thickness at the base Wide

  • Colour of the tail switch Uniform

  • ( white,

  • black,brown)



  • The Tonga breed is mainly found in

  • the Southern Province.

  • It is a short horned Sanga, similar

  • to the Mashona of Zimbabwe.

  • The breed is predominantly found

  • between Kafue and Zambezi rivers,

  • but due to human migration from south

  • to north, it now extends to the north of

  • Kafue river and parts of Central Province.







COAT

  • COAT

  • Colour: Multicolour (black,brown,red, RW, BW)  

  • Hair type: Straight       

  • Hair length: Short

  • HEAD

  • Face Profile: Flat/Concave       

  • Muzzle colour : Pigmented

  • Horns: Present

  • Horn shape: Lyre

  • Horn length: Medium

  • Horn spacing: Narrow

  • Horn orientation: Upward/Forward

  • Ear size: Small

  • Colour of tips: Coloured

  • Ear shape: Straight-edged

  • Ear Orientation: Lateral



  • BODY

  • Body Frame: Small

  • Back profile: Hollow

  • Rump Profile: Sloping

  • Hump: Hump Orientation Erect

  • Hump Location Cervico-thoracic

  • Dewlap: Small

  • Navalflap: Small

  • Legs: Medium

  • Hoofs: Dark

  • TAIL

  • Length Long

  • Thickness at the base Wide

  • Colour of the tail switch Uniform(white,black,brown)



  • Climatic conditions are those of low to

  • medium rainfall with hot dry season

  • particularly in the valley area.

  • Pure Tonga cattle are kept under traditional extensive system, but of late it is common to

  • see partial supplementation being practiced during the dry season by small scale farmers.

  • This breed is reared under Mopane,

  • Munga and Miombo woodlands with Acacia

  • being the dominant species in the valleys.



  • Health management is concentrated on eradication of Corridor disease which is very prevalent in the area , and some occasional outbreaks of Trypanosomiasis and Foot and Mouth Disease.

  • Efforts to control these diseases are directed at tick control through dipping and spraying, tsetse eradication and

  • stock movement restrictions from

  • the disease affected areas.



  • This group of cattle, according

  • to Maule(1960), with traces of

  • short horned Sanga (Tonga breed).

  • It is found in the Kafue flats

  • between Namwala and Mumbwa,

  • and also extending to the Lukanga

  • swamps where they are kept

  • by Sala and Lenje people.





The climate is that of medium

  • The climate is that of medium

  • rainfall and the vegetation

  • comprises open grasslands and

  • occasional Munga woodlands.

  • They are raised mainly under transhumance systems of

  • production just like

  • the Barotse in Western Province.



  • The challenge to health management

  • is the outbreaks of Haemorrhagic Septicaemia and tick- borne diseases

  • such as Theileriosis,Babesiosis etc.,

  • which are difficult to control due to difficulties in controlling stock movements.

  • Involvement of communities to control these diseases seem to be succeeding





COAT

  • COAT

  • Colour: Multicolour (black,brown, Fawn ,red, RW, BW)  

  • Hair type: Straight       

  • Hair length: Short

  • HEAD

  • Face Profile: Concave       

  • Muzzle colour : Pigmented

  • Horns: Present

  • Horn shape: Lyre

  • Horn length: Long

  • Horn spacing: Wide

  • Horn orientation: Upward/Forward

  • Ear size: Small

  • Colour of tips: Coloured

  • Ear shape: Straight-edged

  • Ear Orientation: Lateral



  • BODY

  • Body Frame: Medium

  • Back profile: Hollow

  • Rump Profile: Sloping

  • Hump: Hump Orientation Erect

  • Hump Location Cervico-thoracic

  • Dewlap: Small

  • Navalflap: Small

  • Legs: Long

  • Hoofs: Dark

  • TAIL

  • Length Long

  • Thickness at the base Wide

  • Colour of the tail switch Uniform(white,black,brown)



  • The Boran breed belonging to

  • the short horn group of Zebu cattle,

  • was imported from Kenya and is

  • predominantly owned by commercial farmers along the line of rail, ie, from Livingstone to Copperbelt.

  • The breed has adapted well to

  • the local environment.

  • Its performance is better than

  • other exotic breeds

  • when kept under similar management





The climatic conditions under which Borans are found ,are characterized

  • The climatic conditions under which Borans are found ,are characterized

  • by low rainfall in the south,

  • medium in the midlands and high

  • rainfall in the Northern parts

  • of Zambia.

  • Temperatures generally vary

  • from warm in November to April,

  • cool dry from May to August

  • and hot dry from September to October.



  • The vegetation type ranges from

  • Miombo through Mopane to

  • occasional Munga woodlands.

  • Management is mostly under

  • intensive system of production.

  • The Boran herds are kept mainly

  • by commercial farmers and

  • a few small scale farmers.









BODY

  • BODY

  • Body Frame: lARE

  • Back profile: Hollow /Staight

  • Rump Profile: Sloping

  • Hump: Hump Orientation Flopy

  • Hump Location Thoracic

  • Dewlap: Large

  • Navalflap: Large

  • Legs: Medium

  • Hoofs: Dark

  • TAIL

  • Length Long

  • Thickness at the base Wide

  • Colour of the tail switch Uniform(black, brown)





References

  • References

  • Felius, M. 1995. Cattle breeds: an encyclopedia. Doetinchem

  • (The Netherlands): Misset. 799 pp.

  • Hanotte O. Okomo M. Verjee Y. Rege J.E.O. and Teale A. 1997.

  • A polymorphic Y chromosome microsatellite locus in cattle.

  • Animal Genetics (UK). 28(4):318-319.

  • Mason I.L.,Maule J.P. 1960. The indigenous livestock of eastern

  • and Southern Africa.Common wealth Agricultural Bureaux.

  • Farnham Royal, Bucks, England.pp. 29.

  • Rege J.E.O. 1999. The state of African cattle genetic resources.

  • I. Classification framework and identification of threatened and

  • extinct breeds. FAO/UNEP Animal Genetic Resources

  • Information Bulletin 25:1-25.

  • Mwenya Benson: Field Guide of Zambian

  • Cattle Breeds,2007,MACO , Lusaka, Zambia



References

  • References

  • Thorpe W. and Cruickshank D.K.R. Thompson R. 1980. Genetic and

  • environmental influences on beef cattle production in Zambia.

  • 1. Factors affecting weaner production from Angoni, Barotse and Boran dams.

  • Animal Production (UK). 30(2):217-233.

  • Thorpe W. and Cruickshank D.K.R. Thompson R. 1980. Genetic and

  • environmental influences on beef cattle production in Zambia.

  • 2. Live weights for age of purebred and reciprocally crossbred progeny.

  • Animal Production (UK). 30(2):235-243.

  • Thorpe W. and Cruickshank D.K.R. Thompson R. 1980. Genetic and

  • environmental influences on beef cattle production in Zambia.

  • 3. Carcass characteristics of purebred and reciprocally crossbred castrated males. Animal Production (UK). 30(2):245-252.

  • Thorpe W. and Cruickshank D.K.R. Thompson R. 1981. Genetic and

  • environmental influences on beef cattle production in Zambia.

  • 4. Weaner production from purebred and reciprocally crossbred dams.

  • Animal Production (UK). 33(2):165-177.

  • DAD-IS, 2005: http://dad.fao.org/en/home.htm

  • http://www.zod.wau.nl/genr/phd.html

  • http://www.odi.org.uk/pdn/papers/28c.pdf







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