English and American Literature & Selected Readings

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English and American Literature & Selected Readings

  • :魏晓红
  • : weixiaohonghd@163.com
  • : 13931098970


  • John Keats
  • Charles Lamb
  • Walter Scott
  • Revision
  • Part 5: Romanticism in England
  • Romantic Poets

Chapter 6

  • John Keats
  • 济慈
  • (1795—1821)

John Keats wrote: Para.2

  • “I should not have consented to (赞成)
  • these four months tramping in the highlands…but that I thought it would give me more experience, rub off more prejudice, use me to more hardship, identify finer scenes, load me with grander(更雄伟的) mountains, and strengthen more my reach in poetry than would stopping at home among my books.” (August, 1818)
  • mastery of form
  • and depth of feeling
  • Cockney School
  • “伦敦派”,“伦敦腔”

John Keats (1795—1821)

  • summit of career
  • 1818—1820
  • Rome in 1820
  • died in 1821 and buried
  • in the Protestant cemetery
  • Here lies one
  • whose name is
  • writ in water.
  • 用水写成,形容生命
  • 转眼即逝,一生充
  • 满困苦和泪水。叹
  • 人生短暂和艰辛。
  • 墓地

Keats’ (1795—1821)

  • tuberculosis
  • grieves
  • and troubles
  • death of his
  • loved brother
  • money problem
  • cruel criticism
  • couldn’t marry
  • maturity
  • new aspect

Major literary works

  • 1) Poems,《诗集》,his first book.
  • (1)“O Solitude”, “孤寂”, a sonnet published
  • in Hunt’s The Examiner《检查官》.
  • (2) “On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer”,
  • “初读查普曼译荷马史诗”, a sonnet.
  • (3) “Sleep and Poetry”, “睡与诗”
  • optimism; beauty of Nature;
  • praises of Life; loves of poetry

Major literary works

  • 2) Five long poems
  • Endymion,《恩底弥翁》 his first long poem
  • Isabella 《伊莎贝拉》The Pot of Basil /΄bæzl/
  • The Eve of St. Agnes 《圣·爱格尼斯节前夕》
  • Lamia 《莱米亚》
  • Hyperion 《赫坡里昂》
  • Endymion
  • Greek mythology
  • love with Cynthia
  • exquisite love of beauty
  • 极度的
  • Isabella
  • The Pot of Basil
  • Boccaccio’s
  • Decameron
  • love with Lorenzo
  • 2 wicked brothers
  • sympathy for the oppressed;
  • indignation at the cruelty;
  • exposure of the system of
  • exploitation;
  • description of social phenomenon
  • 颂扬了纯洁的爱情,同时表达了自己对美的
  • 无限崇拜以及对人道主义思想的充分肯定。
  • The Eve of St. Agnes《圣·爱格尼斯前夕》
  • narrative poem
  • in Spenserian stanza
  • Madeline and Porphyro
  • beautiful imagery
  • rich color
  • word music
  • colored dream
  • young man’s poem
  • Romeo and Juliet
  • fondness for sensuous beauty
  • ability of painting exact word-pictures
  • 采用了丰富的象征手段,用热与冷,生与死,天堂与地狱,
  • 红色与银色以及肉欲与贞洁来暗示两种敌对势力激烈的冲
  • 突,使作品具有极强大的艺术感染力。

Lamia 《莱米亚》《拉米亚》

  • from Burton’s Anatomy of Melanchly
  • 波顿 《解剖忧郁症》
  • Lycius
  • genuine love
  • with no harm
  • Apollonius,
  • the sophist
  • 博者,智者
  • Lamia,
  • serpent-maiden
  • inhumane
  • the appreciation of sensuous beauty给人享受的美
  • 反映作者
  • 耐人寻味
  • 的爱情观
  • 和道德观。
  • The Tale of the White Serpent
  • 《白蛇传》praise of faithful love

Hyperion 《赫坡里昂》

  • greatest achievement
  • in poetry
  • blank verse
  • Greek mythology
  • The theme: the conflict between
  • the old (Hyperion) and the new (Apollo)
  • the victory of life and youth over the
  • forces of decay and retrogression(倒退).

3. Short Poems

  • On a Grecian Urn,“希腊古 瓮颂”.
  • (2) On the Grasshopper and the Cricket,“蛐蛐与蟋蟀”.
  • (3) Bright Star “闪亮的星星”
  • (4) When I have Fear”当我害怕的时候”
  • p. 250-251

Keats’ Short Poems

    • (5) To Autumn,“秋颂”
    • (6) On Melancholy,“ 忧郁颂”
  • some stable beauty
  • 作者面对痛苦的人生时复杂的心理以及他渴望
  • 借助夜莺的美妙歌声和美酒之力步入一个理想
  • 的境界,从而逃避现实的消极思想。
    • (7) To a Nightingale,“夜莺颂”, the best known (p. 251-252)
  • The general theme of the odes
  • written in 1819:the praise of beauty


  • How to analyze Keats’ poem, “To Autumn”?
  • p.107-109

An Analysis of “To Autumn”

  • Keats’ “Autumn” was composed on 19 September, 1819, published in 1820, after a walk near Winchester one autumnal evening, which marks the end of his creative career.

Themes of “To Autumn”

  • its fruitfulness,
  • its labour,
  • its ultimate decline
  • Parallel to this, the poem depicts the day turning from morning to afternoon and into dusk.

Themes of “To Autumn”

  • “To Autumn” is concerned with the much quieter activity of daily observation and appreciation.
  • temporality, mortality and change

Themes of “To Autumn”

  • An analysis of the poem:
  • p. 108-109

An Analysis of “To Autumn”

  • The first stanza represents Autumn as involved with the promotion of natural processes, growth and ultimate maturation, two forces in opposition in nature, but together creating the impression that the season will not end.
  • In this stanza the fruits are still ripening and the buds still opening in the warm weather.
  • the imagery of growth and gentle motion: swelling, bending and plumping.

An Analysis of “To Autumn”

  • In the second stanza Autumn is personified as a harvester, to be seen by the viewer in various guises performing labouring tasks essential to the provision of food for the coming year.
  • There is a lack of definitive决定性的 action, all motion being gentle. Autumn is not depicted as actually harvesting but as seated, resting or watching.

An Analysis of “To Autumn”

  • The last stanza contrasts Autumn’s sounds with those of Spring. The sounds that are presented are not only those of Autumn but essentially the gentle sounds of the evening.
  • The references to Spring, the growing lambs and the migrating swallows remind the reader that the seasons are a cycle, widening the scope of this stanza from a single season to life in general.

Discussion: Comments

  • How to comment on Keats’ poetry?

Comments on John Keats’ poetry

  • In John Keats’ short writing career of six or seven years, he produced a variety of kinds of work, including epic, lyric and narrative poems.
  • Keats’ poetry, characterized by exact and closely-knit construction, emotional descriptions, and by force of imagination, gives transcendental values to the physical beauty of the world. 人体美/外在美

Comments on John Keats’ poetry

  • 3) His artistic aim is to create a beautiful world of imagination as opposed to the sordid (miserable) reality of his day.
  • He sought to express beauty in all his poems.
  • His leading principle is “Beauty is truth, truth beauty”.

Comments on John Keats’ poetry

  • 4) Critics agree that Keats is, with Shakespeare, Milton and Wordsworth, one of the indisputably (undeniably) great English poets.
  • And his mighty poems will no doubt have a lasting place in the history English literature.

Romantic Poets

  • Discuss Keats’ differences with
  • Byron, Shelley and Wordsworth.
  • (last paragraph, p. 253)
  • Group Work

p.253, last few lines

  • Keats voiced his resentment against the rule of the aristocracy and bourgeoisie by restricting his application of the principle of liberty to the sphere of Art.
  • His pursuit of Beauty in all things bespoke显示出 an aspiration渴望 after a better life…
  • One of the brilliant trio of active romanticism in England

Assignment (3)

  • 1. Remember Keats’ major works.
  • 2. Comment on Keats’ poetry.
  • 3. Analyze “T0 Autumn”.

Prose writers of the Romantic Age

  • Lamb
  • Hazlitt
  • Hunt
  • Quincey

History of English Essays

  • Montaigne’s Essais
  • French essayist
  • Plorio,
  • English translator
  • Periodical essay:
  • Started by Defoe
  • Developed by
  • Addison and Steele
  • The 19th century: Charles Lamb,
  • William Hazlitt, Leigh Hunt, De Quincey

Romantic Prose Writers

  • 1. The early 19th century is remarkable for the development of a new and valuable type of critical prose writing.
  • 2. The leaders in this new and important development are William Hazlitt, Leigh Hunt, De Quincy and Charles Lamb.

Romantic Prose Writers

  • 3. These prose writers were much influenced by the French Revolution in politics and by the Romantic Movement in literature.
  • 4.They freely expressed their own personality in their writings.
  • 5. The best representative of these writers is Charles Lamb.

Chapter 7 Lamb

  • Charles Lamb 查尔斯·兰姆 (1775—1834)
  • Speaker:
  • Members:
  • Chapter 7 Lamb
  • Student’s Presentation

Major Literary Works

  • Three periods:
  • 1) His first period: poetical drama
  • (1)  John Woodvil
  • 《约翰•伍德维尔》a tragedy in 1802
  • (2)  Mr H
  • 《H君》a comedy in 1806

Major Literary Works

  • 2) His second period:
  • (1)   Tales from Shakespeare
  • 《莎士比亚故事集》, in 1807.
  • (2) Specimens of English Dramatic
  • Poets Contemporary with Shakespeare
  • 《莎士比亚同时代英国戏剧诗人之范作》, in 1808

Major Literary Works

  • 3) His third period: series of essays
  • (1)   Essays of Elia,
  • 《伊利亚随笔集》,masterpiece
  • 《伊利亚散文集》published in 1823.
  • (2)   Last Essays of Elia,
  • 《后随笔集》published in 1833.

Features of Lamb’s Essays

  • 1) The most important feature of his essays is his humor.
  • Charles Lamb is a humorist and a master of puns (双关语) and jokes, which abound in his essays.
  • 2) Lamb was especially fond of old writers.
  • His writings are full of archaisms (/a:′keiizm/古词).

Features of Lamb’s Essays

  • 3) His essays are intensely personal.
  • They are an excellent picture of Lamb and humanity.
  • His essays are marked by relaxed style, conversational tone and wide range of subject matter.

Features of Lamb’s Essays

  • 4) Lamb is a romanticist of the city, while Wordsworth is a romanticist of nature.
  • Lamb’s imagination was inspired by the busy life of London, while Wordsworth drew inspirations from the mountains and lakes.

Assignment (4)

  • 1) Remember Lamb’s major works.
  • 2) What are the features of Lamb’s
  • essays?

Walter Scott 瓦尔特·司各特 (1771—1832 )

  • Chapter 10 Scott

Chapter 10 Walter Scott

  • Student’s Presentation
  • Speaker: 高珊珊
  • Members: 梁爽 杨芹

Walter Scott创作生涯及特点

  • Speaker: 王亚璇
  • Member: 边悦、靳亚梦

Life Story

  • born in Edinburgh
  • his family
  • father
  • mother
  • grandmother
  • stories of the past
  • barrister
  • (在英国有资格出席
  • 高等法庭的律师)
  • legends the old Border
  • feuds (边区争斗)

Life Story

  • wonderful
  • tales
  • intense love of
  • Scottish history
  • and tradition
  • 8,high school
  • Father’s office, law
  • at the same time
  • Lectures, university
  • 21, to the bar

Life Story

  • translation from
  • the German dramas
  • and poems
  • abandon
  • the law

Life Story

  • 43, from
  • poetry to novels
  • a debt of
  • 130,000 pounds
  • writing-machine
  • a vast number of
  • romantic-historical
  • novels
  • died at 60

Scott’s Works

  • 1. Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border, 《苏格兰边区歌谣集》, which he had been collected among the Scottish people for many years.
  • 2.The Lay of the Last Minstrel,《最末一个行吟诗人》

Scott’s Works

  • 3. Marmion《玛密恩》
  • 4. The Lady of the Lake《湖上夫人》
  • 5. Waverley《威弗利》, first historical
  • novel.

Scott’s Historical Novels

  • founder and great master of the historical novel
  • 1) tribal mode of life prevailing the
  • mountains or the Highlands
  • background: 2) preservation of feudal customs in
  • the estates of the large landowners
  • 3) early development of capitalism in
  • the big cities
  • from the Middle Ages to the 18th century
  • 3 subjects: history of Scotland,
  • English history,
  • history of European countries.

Scott’s Historical Novels

  • Waverley 《威弗利》
  • Guy Mannering 《盖曼纳合》
  • Old Morality 《清教徒》
  • Rob Roy
  • 《罗布·罗伊》, the best of the group
  • 5.The Heart of Midlothian
  • 《弥德洛西恩的心》
  • Scottish history

Scott’s Novels of the English History

  • 1. Ivanhoe《艾凡赫》, Norman Conquest
  • the best of the group
  • 2. Kenilworth, 《肯纳尔沃思堡》
  • during the Tudor dynasty
  • 3. The Fortunes of Nigel, 《尼格尔的家产》
  • Stuart rule
  • 4. Woodstock 《皇家猎宫》
  • The English Revolution
  • 5. Peveril of the Peak 《贝弗利尔·皮克》
  • the Restoration

Scott’s Historical Novels of the European Countries

  • 1.Quentin Durward 《昆丁·达沃德》,
  • the best-known novel on French history.
  • 2. Talisman 《惊军英雄记》
  • 3. Count Robert of Paris 《巴黎的罗伯特伯爵》

Other Works

  • St. Ronan’s Wells《圣·罗南之泉》, the only one, dealing with his contemporary life (当代生活小说).

Features of Scott’s Novels

  • 1. Scott has an outstanding gift of vivifying the past.
  • 2. In his novels, historical events are closely interwoven with the fates of individuals.
  • 3. In his historical novels, he concerns both the lives and deeds of the higher class and that of the ordinary people.

Features of Scott’s Novels

  • 4. He is a romantic. (III. 4)He relies on careful studies and investigations into details of historical life.
  • He had a minute mastery of the manners and customs of the period and could create a living world from some old records of the past.
  • 5. He is a Tory, a conservative in politics.

Features of Scott’s Novels

  • Scott’s historical novels paved the way for the development of the realistic novels of the 19th century and marks the transition from romanticism to realism in English literature of the 19th century.
  • (司各特“在今日的苏格兰和过去的苏格兰之间建起一座永恒的金桥”.)

Walter Scott

  • What are Scott’s writing features?
  • 《自主学习与实践》
  • pp.44-45
  • (End)

Assignment (8)

  • 1. Comment on Scott and his literary works.
  • 2. Try to get the main idea of Rob Roy and Ivanhoe.


  • 1)The writing form
  • 2)The title
  • 3)The writer
  • 4)The central theme
  • 5) The rhyme scheme
  • 6) The rhetorical devices
  • (5 points=5种修辞手段)

Allegories and Novels

  • The title of this chapter
  • The title of the book
  • Comments on the book:
  • 1)作家
  • 2)作品的时代,(year/ century)
  • 3)回答出2个以上的写作特点
  • 4)2个以上主题思想

Allegories and Novels

  • The writing features of the paragraph
  • 1)三个以上特点 2)功能。
  • Comments on the writer
  • 1)作家及其所处的年代
  • 2)代表作品或贡献
  • 3)写作特点
  • 4)地位
  • 5)语言流畅


  • The title of the play
  • The speaker
  • Analyze this character
  • 1)作家作品的时代
  • 2)3个以上的特点
  • 3)语言流畅

How to Tell the Main Idea

  • 1)作品的时代
  • 2)评价
  • 3)主要人物
  • 4)事件,故事情节表达不清楚不给分
  • 5)结果
  • 6)语言流畅
  • Goodbye.

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