English for the second year students of the correspondence department


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The Ministry of Higher and Secondary Specialized Education

The Republic of Uzbekistan

Tashkent Chemical-Technological Institute

Department "Foreign languages"


ENGLISH FOR THE SECOND YEAR STUDENTS OF THE CORRESPONDENCE DEPARTMENT



Tashkent - 2019
Тузувчи : Тошкент кимё-технология институти “Хорижий тиллар” кафедраси
катта ўқитувчиси. ____________Хамидова Х.Ш

Тақризчи : Тошкент кимё-технология институти “Хорижий тиллар” кафедра


катта ўқитувчиси .____________Mўминова Д.А.
Фаннинг ишчи ўқув дастури “Хорижий тиллар” кафедрасининг 2019 йил “__” __________ даги _______- сонли мажлисида кўриб чиқилиб,факультет илмий- услубий Кенгашида кўриб чиқиш учун тавсия этилган.
“Хорижий тиллар” кафедра мудири ______________ Адилова Ш.Р.
“ М ва КТ”факультети декани ______________ проф.Хамракулов. Ғ.Ҳ.

Сиртқи бўлим бошлиғи ______________ доц.Бухаров Ш.


Келишилди :
Ўқув ишлари проректори ______________ доц.Сафаров Т

LESSON 1
ENGLISH LANGUAGE
1. Read and translate the text for getting the detailed content.

ENGLISH TODAY

The modern world is becoming smaller all the time. Every day distances between different countries seem less. For this reason it's becoming more and more important to know foreign languages, especially English. English is very popular nowadays. It's the language of computers, science, business, politics, sports, arts and music. It's spoken all over the world. It is the

official language of the United Kingdom, New Zealand, the United States of

America, and Australia. It is one of the official languages of Canada, the Irish

Republic, and the Republic of South Africa. Many English words were borrowed from the language of Angles and Saxons. Hundreds of French words came into English. These French words didn't crowd out corresponding Anglo-Saxon words. There exist "act" and

"deed", "beautiful" and "pretty", "form" and "shape". Some new words were brought by traders and travellers. These words came from all parts of the world: "umbrella" – from Italian, "tea" – from Chinese, "cigar" – from Spanish. Many of the new English words – especially new scientific ones – have been made from Latin and Greek words instead of English ones. "Telephone" for instance, was made from Greek words "far" and "talk". To know English today is absolutely necessary for every educated person, for every good specialist. But learning the language is not easy. It's a long and slow process that takes a lot of time and patience. But it is worth doing. English is taught throughout the world and a lot of people speak it quite well. In Russia English is very popular, it is studied at schools, colleges and universities.



Names:

Australia [os`treiliə] – Австралия

English (language) [`læŋgwid3] – английскийязык

Canada [`kænədə] – Канада

Greek [gri:k] – греческий

Latin [`lætin] – латинский

New Zealand [`nju: `zi:lənd] – НоваяЗеландия

Russia [`r Λ∫ə] – Россия

the United Kingdom [ðiju`naitəd `kiŋdəm] – СоединённоеКоролевство

(ВеликобританиииСевернойИрландии)

the United States of America [ðiju`naitəd `steitsəva`merikə] –

СоединённыеШтатыАмерики

the Irish Republic [ði `airi∫ ri`pΛblik] – ИрландскаяРеспублика

the Republic of South Africa [ðəri`pΛblikəvsauθ`æfrikə] – Южно-

АфриканскаяРеспублика


For self-examination
I. Answer the questions:

1. Why is it necessary to know English today?

2. Why learning English is important for the Russian military officers?

3. In what countries is English the official language (one of the official

languages)?

4. What were the origins of English borrowings?

5. Is learning languages an easy thing? Why?

6. What other languages would you like to know? Why?


II. Fill in the blanks:

1. English is very _______ nowadays.

2. It is the official language of the United Kingdom, New Zealand,

_______, _______.

3. Many English words were borrowed from the language of _______ and

_______.


4. Some new words were brought by _______ and _______.

5. "Telephone" for instance, was made from Greek words _______ and

_______.

6. To know English today is absolutely _______ for every educated

person.
III. Put the words in the correct order to make a sentence:

1) it's, the world, spoken, all over;

2) the, world, modern, is becoming, all the time, smaller;

3) the, language, is not easy, learning;

4) in, English, is, Russia, very, popular;

5) it, a lot of, takes, time, and, patience;

6) know, to, English, is, for, necessary, a good, specialist.

Grammar practice

IV. Put  much, many, little, few, a little или a few.

1. When we walked ... farther down the road, we met another group of students. 2. Have you got ... money on you? — I’m sorry. I have very ... money at the moment. 3. At the conference we met ... people whom we knew well. 4. There are very ... old houses left in our street. Most of them have already been pulled down. 5. If you have ... spare time, look through this book. You will find ... stories there which are rather interesting. 6. There are ... things here which I cannot understand. 7. Shall I bring ... more chalk? — No, thank you. There is ... chalk on the desk. I hope that will be enough for our lesson. 8. He had ... English books at home, so he had to go to the library for more books-. 9. She gave him ... water to wash his hands and face. 10. I’d like to say ... words about my journey. 11. After the play everybody felt... tired. 12. Let’s stay here ... longer: it is such a nice place. 13. Were there ... new words in the text? Did Peter spend ... time learning them? 14. There was not ... hay in the barn, and the children could play there. 15. My friend is going to the concert this evening because he hasn’t got... work to do. 16. My mother knows German ... and she can help you with the translation of this letter. 17. He’s got very ... time left. If he doesn’t hurry up, he’ll miss the plane. 18.I have very ... drinking water left.


V.Use the necessary pronouns:

Bill has lost his keys

A: There is 1) nothing/something more annoying than losing 2) something/anything.

B: What have you lost?

A:My keys. They must be 3) anywhere/somewhere in the house, but I've got 4) no/any idea where. I can't find them 5) nowhere/anywhere.

B: Are you sure you haven't left them 6) somewhere/nowhere by mistake?

A: Of course not. They can't be 7) somewhere/anywhere else but here. 8) No one/Someone must have hidden them.

B: Why would 9) no one/anyone hide your keys? There is 10) any/no reason for 11) anyone/no one to do 12)nothing/something so silly.

A: Well, I need 13) some/any help to find them. I have to go 14) anywhere/somewhere important this afternoon.

B: Calm down. It's 15) some/no use getting angry about 16)anything/something like this. Look! There are 17)no/ some keys on that chair.

A: They're mine! Oh, I feel so silly!
VI. Complete sentences using the necessary pronouns:

1 A: Is there ...anything... good on television tonight?


   B: I don't know. Look in the newspaper.
2 A: Would you like..............    to eat?
   B: No, I don't want.................., thank you.
3 A: There is................here to see you.
   B: Who is it?
4 A: I went to Jane's house, but there was.............at home.
   B: Perhaps she has gone.............nice for the weekend.
5 A: I have...............time to do all this work.
   B: Is there..............I can do to help?
6 A: Was the party good last night?
   B: Not really.  There were hardly...........people there.
7 A: I have to go shopping, but I don't have..........money.
   B:I'll lend you...............if you like.
8 A: Have you seen Michael................    ?
   B: No, I haven't seen him.
9 A: The town was very busy today. There was..............    to park.
   B:They should build ............... new parking facilities.
10 A: What would you do if you were lost?
   B: I would ask............for directions.
11 A: Is there................you would like to go this weekend?
     B: I'd like to go    nice and quiet.
12 A: Is................wrong with Paul?
     B: No, there's...............wrong with him. He's just tired.
VII. Match the words 1-10 and their definition A- J

1. Invention A) large room where people do scientific experiment or research

2. To provide B) to attempt to find something

3. Bankrupt C) a lot of people know their name or have heard about them

4. Discovery D) giving people more of your time or money than is expected

5. Industry E) a feeling of wanting to know about something

6. Generous F) the process of learning something that was not known before

7. To search G) to give someone something that they want or need

8. Interest H) the production of goods

9. Laboratory I) a machine, tool or system that someone has made

10. Famous J) a person or business that has officially admitted that they have no money

VIII. Complete the sentences with words or expressions from the box retell the summary of the text


invention, provide, bankrupt, discoveries, industry ,generous, searching, interest, laboratory, famous


Alfred Nobel

He was born in Stockholm on October 21, 1833 but moved to Russia with his parents in 1842, where his father made a strong position in engineering (1)__________ He made a lot of money for his (2) ________of landmine, but later went (3)__________ Alfred came to Sweden in 1863, and started his own study of explosives in his father’s (4)__________.He had never been to school or University but he studied privately and by the time, he was twenty he became a skilful chemist and excellent linguist, speaking Swedish, Russian, German, French and English. Like his father, Alfred Nobel was imaginative and inventive, but he had better luck in business and showed more financial sense.Nobel's main concern was never with making money or even making scientific (5)_________.He was always (6)________ for a meaning to life, and from his youth he had taken a serious (7) ________ in literature and philosophy. Perhaps, because he could not find ordinary human love — he never married — he came to care deeply about the whole of mankind. He was always (8)________to the poor. His greatest wish, however, was to see an end to wars and he spent much time and money working for this cause until his death in Italy in 1896.

His (9)__________ will, in which he left money to (10) ________ prizes for outstanding works in physics, chemistry, psychology, medicine, literature and peace, is a memorial to his interests and ideals.

LESSON 2

Read and translate the text for getting the detailed content.

GREAT BRITAIN

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated

on the British Isles. The British Isles consist of two large islands, Great Britain

and Ireland and about five thousand small islands. Their total area is over

244,000 square kilometers.The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Cardiff, Edinburgh, and Belfast respectively. Great Britain consists of England, Scotland, Wales and does not include Northern Ireland. But in everyday speech "Great Britain" is used to mean the United Kingdom. The capital of the UK is London. The British Isles are separated from the continent by the North Sea and the English Channel. The western coast of Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic

Ocean and the Irish Sea.

Shakespeare called Britain a "precious stone set in the silver sea" because

of its natural beauty. It has a varied countryside where you can find mountains,

plains, valleys and sandy beaches. Ben Nevis in Scotland is the highest mountain,

but it is only 1343 meters high.

There are a lot of rivers in Great Britain, but they are not very long. The

Severn is the longest river, while the Thames is the deepest and the most important

one. The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of Gulf Stream

influence the climate of the British Isles. It is mild the whole year round. The

British often say: "Other countries have a climate; in England we have weather".

The weather in Britain is very changeable. A fine morning can change into a wet

afternoon and evening. And a nasty morning can change to a fine afternoon.

That's why it is natural for the British to use the comparison "as changeable as the

weather" of a person who often changes his mood or opinion about something.

The British also say that they have three variants of weather: when it rains

in the morning, when it rains in the afternoon or when it rains all day long.

The UK is one of the world's smallest countries. Its population is over

60 million. About 80% of the population lives in cities. The UK is a highly developed industrial country. It is known as one of the world's largest producers and exporters of machinery, electronics, textile, aircraft,and navigation equipment. One of the chief industries of the country is ship building. The UK is a constitutional monarchy. In law, the Head of State is the

Queen. But in practice, the Queen reigns, but does not rule. The country is ruled by the elected government with the Prime Minister at the head. The British

Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of

Commons. There are three main political parties in Great Britain: the Labour,

the Conservative, and the Liberal parties.

Names:

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland [ðiju`naitəd

`kiŋdəməvgreitbritnənd `no:ðən `ailənd] – СоединённоеКоролевствоВе-

ликобритании и Северной Ирландии

the BritishIsles [ðə`briti∫ `ailz] – Британские острова

Edinburgh [`edinbuə] – Эдинбург

Cardiff ['ka:dif] – Кардифф

Belfast [`belfa:st] – Белфаст

the North Sea [ðə`no: θ`si:] – Северноеморе

the EnglishChannel [ði `i:ŋgli∫ `t∫æn(ə)l] – Английский канал (принятое

в Великобритании название пролива Ла-Манш)

the AtlanticOcean [ðiət`læntik `əu∫(ə)n] – Атлантический океан

the IrishSea [ði `airi∫ `si:] – Ирландское море

the Severn ['sevən] – рекаСевен

the Thames [`temz] – рекаТемза

the Gulf Stream [ðə`gΛlf `stri:m] – Гольфстрим

the House of Lords [ðə`hausəv `lo:dz] – палаталордов

the House of Commons [ðə`hausəv `komənz] – палатаобщин

theLabour [‘leibə], the Conservative [kən`sə:vətiv] and the Liberal

[`liberəl] parties – Лейбористская, Консервативная и Либеральная партии



For self-examination
I. Answer the questions:

1. The UK is an island state, isn't it? Where is it situated?

2. What countries is the UK made of? What are their capitals?

3. What channel separates the British Isles from the European continent?

4. What's the highest mountain on the British Isles?

5. Are there a lot of long and deep rivers in Great Britain? What are they?

6. What is the climate on the British Isles? What do Britons say about

their weather?

7. What's the UK's population?

8. What does the UK produce and export?

9. The UK is a constitutional monarchy. What does it mean?
II.Fill in the blanks:

1. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and ________ is situated on

the________.

2. The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, _______,

_______, and Northern Ireland.

3. The British Isles are separated from the continent by the North Sea and

the _______.

4. The ______is the longest river, while the ______is the deepest and the

most important one.

5. The weather in Britain is very ________.

6. The UK is a highly _______ industrial country.

7. One of the chief industries of the country is _______.

8. The UK is a _______ monarchy.

9. The British Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Lords

and _______.
III. Put the words in the correct order to make a sentence:

1) the, is made up, United Kingdom, of, countries, four;

2) in, there are, rivers, Great Britain, a lot of;

3) a nasty, to, a fine, morning, afternoon, can change;

4) the, UK, is, smallest, one of, the world's, countries;

5) UK, is, the, industrial country, a highly developed;

6) the Queen, in practice, but, does not rule, reigns.

Grammar practice
IV. Fill in the correct article.
1. “Is this your ... friend?” — “No, it isn’t my ... friend, it is my sister”. 
2. I have ... sister. My ... sister is ... teacher. My sister’s ... husband is ... pilot. 
3. I have no ... car. 
4. She has got ... terrible … headache. 
5. They have ... dog and two ... cats. 
6. My ... cousin says he is going to be ... manager one ... day. 
7. Would you like ... apple? 
8. This is ... tree. ... tree is green. 
9. I can see three ... children. ... children are playing in … yard. 
10. I have ... car. ... car is white. My ... friend has no ... car.
V. Fill in the articles in the proverbs if necessary.
1. … apple … day keeps … doctor away. 
2. … appetite comes with eating. 
3. … good beginning makes … good ending. 
4. … bird in … hand is worth two in … bush. 
5. Among … blind … one-eyed man is king. 
6. … brevity is … soul of wit. 
7. … cat has nine lives. 
8. … charity begins at … home. 
9. … clothes make … man. 
10. … curiosity killed … cat. 

VI. Match the words 1-10 and their definition A- J
1. SatelliteA) a machine, tool or system that someone has made

2. To create B) to make something better

3. To observe C) the process of learning something that was not known before

4. Astronomer D) device that you look through to make distant object look closer

5. Idea E) a piece of equipment that measures temperature

6. Invention F) an object that is sent into space

7. Thermometer G) information or knowledge that you have about something

8. To improve H) to make something new that did not exist before

9. Discovery I) to study something with care and attention

10. Telescope J) someone who studies the stars


VII. Complete the sentences with words or expressions from the box retell the

summary of the text


satellite, create, observe, astronomer, ideas, inventions, thermometer, improved, discovery, telescopes


Galileo Facts
Galileo Galileo was born in Pisa, Italy, on the 15th of February 1564, he died on the 8th of January 1642. Galileo was a ground breaking (1)________, physicist, mathematician, philosopher and inventor. Among his (2)_________ were telescopes, a compass and a (3)________ .

Galileo enrolled to do a medical degree at the University of Pisa but never finished, instead choosing to study mathematics. Galileo built on the work of others to (4)_________ a telescope with around 3x magnification, he later (5)_________ on this to make telescopes with around 30x magnification. With these (6)__________, Galileo was able to (7)___________ the skies in ways previously not achieved. In 1610 he made observations of 4 objects surrounding Jupiter that behaved unlike stars, these turned out to be Jupiter’s four largest (8)__________ moons: Io, Calisto, Europa and Ganymede. They were later renamed the Galilean satellites in honor of Galileo himself.

The (9)_________ of these moons was not supported by the scientific principles of the time and Galileo had trouble convincing some people that he had indeed discovered such objects. This was similar to other (10) _________ put forward by Galileo that were very controversial at the time.


LESSON 3

Read and translate the text for getting the detailed content.

THE USA

The United States of America is the fourth largest country in the world

(after Russia, Canada, and China). It occupies the southern part of the North

American Continent and stretches from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean. It also

includes Alaska in the north and Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. The total area of

the country is about nine and a half million square kilometers. The USA borders

on Canada in the north and on Mexico in the south. It also has a seaboarder

with Russia. The USA is made up of 50 states, each of which has its own government ,and the District of Columbia, a special federal area where the capital of the country, Washington, is situated. The population of the country is more than

270 million.The USA is a federal republic. According to the US Constitution the powers of the government are divided into 3 branches: the executive, headed by the President, the legislative, exercised by the Congress, and the judicial. The Congress consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives. There are two main political parties in the USA: the Republican and the Democratic, though there's hardly any difference between their political lines. If we look at the map of the USA, we can see lowlands and mountains. The highest mountains are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera, and the Sierra Nevada. The highest peak is Mount McKinley which is located in Alaska.

America's largest rivers are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the Rio Grande,

and the Columbia. The Great Lakes on the border with Canada are the largest

and deepest in the USA. The climate of the country varies greatly. The coldest regions are in the north. The climate of Alaska is arctic. The climate of the central part is continental. The south has a subtropical climate. Hot winds blowing from the Gulf of Mexico often bring typhoons. The climate along the Pacific coast is much warmer than that of the Atlantic coast.

The USA is a highly developed industrial country. It's the world's leading

producer of copper and oil, and the world's second producer of iron ore and

coal. Among the most important manufacturing industries are machine building, shipbuilding, automobile and armaments industry and others. Though mainly European and African in origin, Americans are made up of nearly all races and nations, including Chinese and Native Americans. The largest cities are: New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia, Detroit, San-Francisco, Washington, etc.

Names:

Alaska [ə`læskə] – Аляска

the United [ju'naitid] States [steits] of America – СоединённыеШтаты

Америки


Canada ['kænədə] – Канада

China ['t∫ainə] – Китай

Chicago [t∫i`ka:gəu] – Чикаго

Detroit [di'troit] – Детройт

District of Columbia [`distriktəvkə'lΛmbiə] – округКолумбия

Florida ['florida] – Флорида

Hawaii [ha'waii:] – Гавайи

Los Angeles [los'ænd3ili:z] – Лос-Анджелес

Mexico ['meksikəu] – Мексика

Mount McKinley [mauntmə'kinli] – гораМак-Кинли

North America [no:θə`merikə] – СевернаяАмерика

Philadelphia [filə'delfiə] – Филадельфия

San-Francisco [,sænfrən'siskəu] – Сан-Франциско

the Atlantic [ə`tlæntik] Ocean – Атлантическийокеан

the Columbia [kə'lΛmbiə] – рекаКолумбия

the Congress ['koŋgres] – Конгресс

the Cordillera [,ko:di'ljeə] – горнаясистемаКордильеры

the Great Lakes [`greit `leiks] – Великиеозёра(5 озёр: Мичиган,

Онтарио, Гурон, Верхнее озеро и Эри)

the GulfofMexico [gΛlfəv `meksikəu] – Мексиканский залив

the House of Representatives [,repri'zentativz] – Палатапредставителей

the Mississippi [,misi'sipi] – рекаМиссисипи

the Missouri [mi'zuəri] – рекаМиссури

the Pacific Ocean [pə`sifik 'əu∫n] – Тихийокеан

the Republican [ri'pΛblikan] and the Democratic [`demə'krætik] parties –

Республиканская и Демократическая партии

the RioGrande [,гiəu `grænd] – река Рио-Гранде

the Rocky Mountains [`roki `mauntinz] – Скалистыегоры

the Senate ['senit] – Сенат

the Sierra Nevada [si`erani`væda] – Сьерра-Невада

Washington ['wo∫iŋtən] – Вашингтон
For self-examination

I. Answer the questions:

1. Where is the USA situated?

2. What's the total area of the country?

3. What countries does the USA border on?

4. How many states does the USA consist of?

5. What is the capital of the country?

6. What is the population of the United States?

7. What mountains in the USA do you know?

8. What are the largest rivers of the USA?

9. What can you say about the climate of the country?

10. What does the USA produce?

11. How many chambers does the Congress of the USA consist?

12. What are the main political parties in the USA?

13. Who is the US President now?


II.Fill in the blanks:

1. The USA occupies the ______ part of the North American Continent.

2. The USA is made up of 50 states and the ______ of ______.

3. The USA is a ______ reрublic.

4. The Congress consists of the Senate and the House of _______.

5. There are two main political parties in the USA: the ______ and the

Democratic.

6. The highest mountains in the USA are the Rocky Mountains, the Cordillera,

and the ______.

7. Its largest rivers are the Mississippi, the Missouri, the ______ and the

______.

8. It's the world's leading producer of ______ and ______.


III. Put the words in the correct order to make a sentence:

1) the, is, United States of Americа, the fourth, the, world, largest country, in;

2) the, is, USA, made up, 50 states, of;

3) two, there are, political parties, in, the USA, main;

4) varies, climate, the, of the country, greatly;

5) the, climate, is, the central part, continental, of;

6) all, Americans, made up of, nearly, races, nations, are, and.

Grammar practice

IV.Write in a, an, some, any.

There's ______angel on the top. There are ______ornaments on the tree. Are there ______lights on the tree? There isn't ______Christmas tree in the house. There's ______ jam on the wooden table. Is there ______bread in the basket? There aren't ______ vegetables in the fridge.


V.Complete the sentences with some/any/no.

There is _______ tea in the crystal glass, but it is very hot. There is _______ fresh milk in the fridge. I can't make porridge. Are there ________ tasty apples in the bag? There isn't _______ jam on the round plate. There are _______ bananas on the wooden table. They are yellow. There is ________ butter on the plate. There is ________ cheese on the table, but there’re ____________ cheese sandwiches. There isn't _________ sausage on the table. There are ____________ potatoes in the bag. There aren't ______________ bananas on the table, but there are ________ cucumbers there.



VI.Complete the sentences with the words Cucumbers, tomatoes, cabbage, apples, carrots

There is some fresh ________ on the wooden table. There aren't any ___________ in the big bag, but there are some ________ there. There are no green ________ on the table, but there are some tasty red _________ there.


VII. Match the words 1-10 and their definition A- J

1. To determine A) the process of learning about a subject

2.Element B) a particular type of liquid, solid

3. To continue C) to change the position of something

4. Famous D) a scientific test

5. Scientist E) to study a subject

6. To turn F) to keep doing something without stopping

7. To examine G) someone who is trained in science

8. Substance H) a substance that consist of only one type of atom

9. To study I) to officially decide something



10. Experiment J) a lot of people know their name or have heard about them

VIII. Complete the sentences with words or expressions from the boxretell the summary of the text

determined,element ,continue,famous, scientists, turn,examine, substance, studied experiments



Marie Curie and the discovery of radium
Marie Curie was born in Warsaw on November 7, 1867. Her father was a teacher of science and mathematics in a school, and it was from him that little Marie Sktodowska(her Polish name) learned her first lesson in science. In 1891 she went to Paris to (1) ________her studies at the Sorbonne. She (2)________to work for two Master's degrees- one in physics,' the other in mathematics. Yet she had scarcely enough money to live on. She (3) _______night after night after her hard day's work at the Uni­versity. She chose her course and nothing could (4)_________ her from it. Among the many (5)________with whom Marie met and worked in Paris was Pierre Curie. When he met Marie he was 35 years old and was (6)_______throughout Europe for his discoveries in magnetism. Pierre Curie and Marie, both of whom loved science more than anything else, very soon became the closest friends. After a little more than a year Marie became Madame Curie.Besides uranium Marie Curie began to (7) _________ every known chemical (8) _______. She repeated her (9) ________time after time and found that one mineral emitted much more powerful rays than uranium. So she could only de­cide that this mineral must contain some new element. It was a mystery. This seemed unthinkable. Scientists declared that every element was already known to them. However, all Marie's experiments proved that the mineral contained some new and unknown (10)_______ There was no other explanation for the powerful rays which it emitted


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