English for the second year students of the correspondence department

LESSON 4 I. Read and translate the text for getting the detailed content

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I. Read and translate the text for getting the detailed content.

The British people are known to be great sports-lovers, so when they are neither playing, nor watching games, they like to talk about them. One of the most popular sports games in the UK is cricket. It is often played in schools, colleges, universities and by club teams all over the country. To many Englishmen cricket is both a game and a standard of behavior. When they consider something unfair, they say: "that's not cricket", that means "that's not fair"; the idiom "to play the game" has the opposite meaning "to be fair". But as almost everywhere else in the world, the game which attracts the greatest attention is football, or soccer. It should be noted that the game of football was first played in Britain1. Today there are plenty of professional and amateur soccer clubs all over the country. International football matches and the Cup Finals take place traditionally at Wembley. Rugby (rugby football), the other kind of football, is also very popular in the UK. There are two forms of rugby football: the amateur game and the professional game. The two games have different rules. Next to football, the most spectacular sport in Britain is horse-racing. A lot of people are interested in races and risk money on the horse which they think will win. Britain is also famous for motor-car racing, dog-racing, boat-racing, and even races for donkeys. The famous boat-race between the teams of Oxford and Cambridge attracts large crowds of spectators.

A great number of Britons play and watch tennis. Tennis tournaments at

Wimbledon are known all over the world. Such games as golf, baseball, hockey,

and grass-hockey are also popular in the UK, as well as various forms of athletics,

such as running, jumping, swimming, and boxing.

As for winter sports, they are not very popular in England because of the

weather that is not cold enough.


Cup Final [`kΛp `fainl] – финалрозыгрышакубка

Wembley [`wembli] – стадионУэмбливЛондоне

Wimbledon ['wimbldən] – Уимблдон(предместьеЛондона)

II.For self-examination

Answer the questions:

1. What kindsоf sport are popular in the UK?

2. What kind of sport is especially associated with Britain?

3. What is cricket for an Englishman?

4. Where do the Cup Finals take place?

5. What kinds of racing are popular in Britain?

6. What other sports games do the British play?
III .Fill in the blanks:

1. The British people are known to be great sports-______.

2. One of the most popular sports games in the UK is______.

3. To many Englishmen cricket is both a game and a ______of ______.

4. The game of ______ was first played in Britain.

5. International football matches and the Cup Finals take place traditionally

at ______.

6. Next to football, the most spectacular sport in Britain is ______.

7. ______ tournaments at Wimbledon are known all over the world.
IV. Put the words in the correct order to make a sentence:

1) the, game, attracts, the, football, greatest, which, attention, is;

2) there are, professional, amateur, and, plenty of, the country, soccer

clubs, all over;

3) there are, of, rugby football, the, amateur game, two forms, the professional

game, and;

4) are interested, a lot of, people, in races, risk money, and, on the horse;

5) Britons, a great number of, and, play, watch, tennis.

Grammar practice
V. Complete the sentences with Present Continuous or Past Continuous 
1.I (to write) an English exercise now. 

2. I (to write) an English exercise at this time yesterday. 


3.My little sister (to sleep) now. 


4.My little sister (to sleep) at this time yesterday. 


5.My friends (not to do) their homework now.They (to play) volley-ball. 


6. My friends (not to do) their home­work at seven o'clock yesterday. 

They (to play) volley-ball. 

7.You (to eat) ice-cream now? 


8. You (to eat) ice-cream when I rang you up yesterday? 


9. What your father (to do) now? 


10. What your father (to do) from eight till nine yesterday? 


11. Why she (to cry) now? 


12. Why she (to cry) when I saw her yesterday? 


13.She (to read) the whole evening yesterday. 


14.She (not to read) now. 


15.Now she (to go) to school. 


16. What you (to do) now? —-I (to drink) tea. 


17.You (to drink) tea at this time yesterday? — No, I (not to drink) tea 

at this time yesterday, I (to eat) a banana. 

18. My sister is fond of reading. She (to read) the whole evening yesterday, 

and now she (to read) again. 

19. Look! My cat (to play) with a ball. 


20.When I went out into the garden, the sun (to shine) and

birds (to sing) in the trees. 

VI. Match the words 1-10 and their definition A- J
1. Word A) an area of study that uses scientific methods

2. Element B) existing in nature and not produced by people

3. Traditional C) to announce officially that something is happening

4. To involve D) to join people, groups or countries together

5. To describe E) to put something with another thing or group of things

6.To declare F) typical of the things that people have usually done

7. To unite G) to include someone or something in an important way

8. Science H) a single unit of written or spoken language

9. Natural I) a substance that consists of only one type of atom

10. To add J) to give details about someone or something is like

VII. Complete the sentences with words or expressions from the box and retell the summary of the text

Word, elements ,traditional, involves, described ,was declared ,to unite, science, natural, was added


Chemistry is a branch of physical (1)_ ____that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter. Chemistry is sometimes called the central science because it bridges other (2)_____ sciences, including physics, geology and biology. The (3)__ ___chemistry comes from the word alchemy which was an earlier set of practices that encompassed (4)____of chemistry, metallurgy, philosophy, astrology, astronomy and medicine. An alchemist was called a “chemist” in popular speech, and later the suffix “-ry”(5)_ __ _ ____ to this to describe the art of the chemist as “chemistry”. (6)__ ___ chemistry starts with the study of elementary particles, atoms, molecules, substances, metals, crystals. This matter can be studied in solid, liquid, or gas states, in isolation or in combination.The year 2011(7) _ __ ___ by the United Nations as the International Year of Chemistry. It was an initiative of the international Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, and of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization and (8)_ ____ chemical societies, academics, and institutions worldwide and relied on individual initiatives to organize local and regional activities. . In 1663 the chemist Christopher Glaser (9)_____ «chemistry» as a scientific art, by which one learns to dissolve bodies, and draw from them the different substances on their composition, and how (10) _ ____ them again, and exalt them to a higher perfection


I. Read and translate the text for getting the detailed content.
The British are one of the biggest newspaper-reading nations in the world. Probably in no other country are there such great differences between the various national daily newspapers1 – in the type of news they report and the way they

report it. On the one hand, there are the "quality" newspapers: "The Times", "The

Independent", "The Guardian", "The Financial Times", and "The Daily Telegraph".

These concern themselves with factual reports of major national and international events, with the world of politics and business and with the arts and sport. On the other hand, there are "tabloids", so-called because of their smaller size. The tabloids – the most widely read of which are "The Daily Mail", "The Daily Express", "The Daily Mirror", "The Sun", and "The Daily Star" – concentrate on more emotive reporting of stories often featuring violence, the Royal family, film and pop stars, sport. It's often said that the popular press aims to entertain its readers rather than inform them. The tabloid press is much more popular than the quality press. In some countries, newspapers are owned by government or by political parties. This is not the case in Britain2. Newspapers here are mostly owned by individuals or by publishing companies and the editors of the papers are usually allowed considerate freedom of expression. This is not to say that newspapers are without political bias. Papers like "The Daily Telegraph", "The Daily Express",for example, usually reflect conservative opinions in their comment and reporting, while "The Daily Mirror" and "The Guardian" have a more left-wing bias. In addition to the twelve national daily newspapers there are nine national papers which are published on Sundays. Most of the "Sundays" contain more reading matter than daily papers, and several of them also include "color supplements" – separate color magazines which contain photographically illustrated feature articles. Reading a Sunday paper, like having a big Sunday

lunch, is an important tradition in many British households. Besides, nearly every area in Britain has one or more local newspapers.

"The Daily Mail" ['deili 'meil] – "Дейлимэйл" – ежедневнаягазета

консервативного направления, основана в 1896; с 1917 является малофор-

матной газетой.

"The DailyExpress" [,deiliiks'pres] – "Дейли экспресс" – ежедневная

газета правоконсервативного направления, основана в 1900 г.

"The DailyMirror" [,deili 'mirə] – "Дейлимирро" – ежедневная мало-

форматная газета, рассчитанная на массового читателя; по некоторым

вопросам поддерживает Лейбористскую партию.

"The DailyStar" [,deili 'sta:] – "Дейли стар" – ежедневная малофор-

матная газета, рассчитанная на массового читателя; печатает сенсацион-

но-развлекательные материалы. Основана в 1978 г.

"The Daily Telegraph" [,deili 'teligra:f] – "Дейлителеграф" – ежеднев-


"The Financial Times" [fai,næn∫əl 'taimz] – "Файнэншлтаймс" – еже-

дневная _____финансово-экономическая газета консервативного направления,

публикует материалы по внутриполитическим и международным вопро-

сам; печатается на розовой бумаге.

"The Guardian" ['ga:djən] – "Гардиан" – ежедневная газета либераль-

ного направления, основана в 1821.

"The Independent" [,indi'pendənt] – "Индепендент" – независимая по-

литическая газета.

"The Sun" [sΛn] – "Сан" – ежедневная газета бульварного толка.

Издаётся в Лондоне, выходит с 1964 г.

"The Times" [taimz] – "Таймс" – ежедневная газета консервативного


toreflect [ri'flekt] – отражать

violence [`vaiələns] – насилие, жестокость

II.For self-examination

Answer the questions:

1. What UK "quality" newspapers do you know?

2. What does a term "tabloid" mean?

3. What UK "popular" newspapers do you know?

4. It's often said that the aim of the popular press is to entertain its readers

rather than inform them. What kind of material do these newspapers concentrate


5. Are "quality" papers more popular than "tabloids"? Why?

6. In some countries newspapers are owned by government or by political

parties. What about Britain?

7. What's the difference between daily newspapers and "Sundays"?
III. Fill in the blanks:

1. The _______ newspapers are "The Times", "The Independent", "The

Guardian", "The Financial Times" and "The Daily Telegraph".

2. The most widely _______ are "The Daily Mail", "The Daily Express",

"The Daily Mirror", "The Sun" and "The Daily Star".

3. The tabloid press is much more popular than the _______.

4. Newspapers here are mostly owned by _______ or by _______ companies.

5. Most of the _______ contain more reading matter than daily papers,

and several of them also include "color supplements".

6. Nearly every area in Britain has one or more _______.

IV. Put the words in the correct order to make a sentence:

1) the, one of, British, are, the biggest, in, newspaper-reading, the, world,


2) the, press, tabloid, is, popular, than, much more, the, press, quality;

3) mostly, owned, newspapers, are, by, individuals, by, companies, or,


4) every, nearly, area, has, local, newspapers, one or more, in, Britain.
Grammar practice
V. Combine the words in brackets with suitable SUFFIXES to complete the sentences.Choose from the following suffixes:

-er, -or, -ing, -ion, -ness, -ity
1. A __________________ (boil) is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated.
2. ________________ (compress) is the reduction in size of data in order to save space or

transmission time.

3. In chemistry, the ____________________(dense) of many substances is compared to

the______________ (dense) of water.

4. _______________________(transmit) is the act of passing something on.
5. _________________ (hard) is the characteristic of a solid material expressing its resistance to

permanent deformation.

VI. Match the words 1-10 and their definition A- J

1. Group A) something that happens in the same way as an earlier event

2. To find B) a part of an atom

3. Atomic C) used for describing amounts that have not become more or less

4. To identify D) something that represents a particular idea or quality

5. Division E) things that are similar share some qualities

6. Similar F) separation into groups

7. Electron G) to discover something by chance

8. Level H) using the energy that is produced by splitting atoms

9. Symbol I) to recognize someone or something

10. Repetition J) a number of people who are together in the same place

VII. Complete the sentences with words or expressions from the box and retell the summary of the text

group, found, atomic, identify, division, similar, electrons, level, symbols, repetition

Elements and the periodic table of elements

In 1869, although working independently, the Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907) and the German chemist J. Lothar Meyer (1830-1895), made (1)_____discoveries. They (2)______that if elements are arranged in order of (3)_______weight, they could be placed in rows and they would share similar within a column. This tabular arrangement of elements in rows and columns, highlighting the regular (4)________of properties of the elements, is called a periodic table. Later, some discrepancies were noticed, so in the early part of the twentieth century the elements were categorized and ordered by atomic number.

The basic structure of the periodic table is its (5)_______ into rows or periods and columns or groups. Each period indicates the highest energy (6)______the electrons of that element occupy at its ground state. The vertical columns are called groups. Each element in a(7)______has the same number of valence (8) ________and typically behaves in a similar manner when bonding with other elements. Based on the modern definition of elements – substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means, there are currently 112 elements known. Of those, 91 are naturally occurring and 21 have been made in the laboratory. Chemists use (9) _________to mark an element; it is usually the first letter of the name. In some cases the symbol comes from Latin names for the elements. They are always written in capital letters. If two or more elements have the same first letter then another letter is added to the symbol. Many periodic tables (10)________element types using different colors for different element types.


I. Read and translate the text for getting the detailed content.

The population of the United States is made up of people of different nationalities.

Their predecessors came to America from different countries, and they brought their native celebrations with them. They all became Americans, but kept many traditions of those countries they had come from. That is why the number of holidays in different states of America is different. But the most important holidays are celebrated throughout the United States. One of the greatest holidays in the USA is Independence Day (July 4). In that day of 1776 the Declaration of Independence was signed, proclaiming independence of thirteen British colonies from Great Britain. July 4 has become the greatest holiday since that time. Cities are decorated with flags on that day, there are parades in some places, but most people just go on picnics to the countryside. Another great US holiday is New Year's Day. People see the old year off and the New Year in1. Most people stay up all night, even children. At midnight many people go outside and shout "Happy New Year!". Some people blow automobile horns which are heard everywhere. Everybody exchanges presents and good wishes. Offices, factories, banks, and stores do not work on this day. Christmas is a religious holiday. By this day people set fur trees in their houses and decorate them with toys and candies. Children wait for Santa Claus who comes to every house and brings them presents. Before going to bed, children leave their shoes to find in them what they want most of all the nextmorning. Most people prefer to stay at home with the whole family on this day. Some people visited churches. Thanksgiving Day is kind of religious holiday too. It falls on the 4thThursday in November. Thanksgiving has been celebrated since the first harvest festival in America in the autumn of 1621. On this day family members gather at the house of an older relative, even if they live far away. People thanks God for his goodness and good harvest. It is a long-standing tradition to fry a large turkey for a festive meal on this day. Charitable organizations offer traditional rich meal to the homeless.

Independence [,indi`pendəns] Day – ДеньнезависимостиСША

Declaration [,deklə`rei∫(ə)n] of Independence – провозглашение

(декларация) независимости

SantaClaus [,sæntə`clo:z] – Санта Клаус

Thanksgiving [`θæŋks,giviŋ] Day – День благодарения

II.For self-examination

Answer the questions:

1. Why the number of holidays is different in the USA?

2. When is Independence Day celebrated?

3. How do the Americans celebrate Christmas?

4. How and when is Thanksgiving Day celebrated in the USA?
III. Fill in the blanks:
1. One of the greatest holidays in the USA is _______(July 4).

2. Another great US holiday is _______.

3. At midnight many people go outside and shout "_______!".

4. Children wait for _______ who comes to every house and brings them


5. _______ is celebrated on the 4th Thursday in November.

IV. Put the words in the correct order to make a sentence:
1) the most, important, are celebrated, holidays, throughout, United

States, the;

2) the greatest, one of, USA, holidays, the, is, in, Independence Day;

3) everybody, presents, exchanges, wishes, and, good;

4) it is, tradition, to fry, a long-standing, large, a, turkey, on, Thanksgiving

Grammar practice

V.Match the following phrasal verbs with suitable expressions:
bring up look out look forward to
take after break down show up
take place turn off get rid of
take part in turn on make up
_______________ you father ____________ children
_______________ a competition ____________ in Kosice next week
_______________ the light ____________ the computer
_______________ a story ____________ the end of the semester
_______________ the rubbish ____________ your mind

VI. Match the words 1-10 and their definition A- J
1. To enjoy A) to be made of particular parts or things

2. To depend on B) used about something that many people want or like to have

3. Spread C) still good to eat because of being produced recently

4. To eat D) a container, used for making and pouring tea

5. To provide E) an occasion when you eat

6. Popular F) if one thing depends on another

7. Fresh G) soft food that you put on bread

8. Teapot H) to put food into your mouth and swallow it

9. Meal I) to give someone or something that they need

10. To consist of J) to get pleasure from something

VII. Complete the sentences with words or expressions from the box and retell the summary of the text

Provide, popular, eat, fresh, enjoyed ,spreads, meal , depending on, consists of , teapot

British food

Traditionally, people in Britain have (1) ______a substantial hot meal for breakfast, featuring eggs, bacon, and sausage, accompanied by toast and tea or coffee. Many other items (kedgeree, grilled or fried tomatoes, baked beans, fried sliced bread, fried potato and mushrooms) may be included (2) ___ ____taste and location.Today, this dish is not usually served at breakfast time during the week. The traditional cooked breakfast has largely been replaced by simple, light foods mainly eaten cold: fruit, yogurt, packaged cereal with cold milk, and toast with a variety of (3)______such as butter, jam, marmalade.Many people (4) _____lunch while at work or school. Employers and schools usually (5) _____ a lunch break in the middle of the day, lasting as much as an hour. Tea is very (6)_____ among the English; it may almost be called their national drink. The English like it strong and (7)______made. The English put one teaspoon of tea for each person. Tea means two things. It is a drink and a meal.Traditionally, loose tea would be served in a (8)_____ with milk and sugar. This would be accompanied by various sandwiches, scones and usually cakes and pastries. The food would be often served in a tiered stand. Dinner – the evening meal – is the biggest and the main (9) ______of the day. It begins with soup. This (10)__________a piece of meat accompanied by two different boiled vegetables. One of the vegetables is almost always potatoes. The British eat a lot of potatoes.

I. Read and translate the text for getting the detailed content.
Many years ago a town crier ran through the streets and shouted out all the news. Now we live in the Atomic Age, where too many things happen too quickly, and have some more convenient possibilities to find out what is happening in the world. Reading books and newspapers is one of them. The first books printed on the paper appeared 500 years ago. Before that time the only way of making books was to write them out by hand. No one knows when writing first began, but scientists have found drawings on the walls of caves and scratching on bones which are at least 25,000 years old. The invention of paper played an important part in the development of books. In the 11th century the art of papermaking reached Europe but no trace of printing was found in Europe until 1423. It is known that Johann Gutenberg secretly tried out ways of printing in Strasbourg, Germany, in 1440. The knowledge of the methods of printing spread so quickly over the Europe that by the year 1487 nearly every country had started printing books. Later people began to learn how to make paper quickly and cheaply and of

better quality. As a result of this, books became much lighter and smaller.

The first person who printed books in English was William Caxton, the

first Russian printer is Ivan Fedorov. The first book printed in the Russian language appeared in Moscow in 1564. Up to that time there were only handwritten books in Russia. The house built for printing books was not far from the Kremlin. At that time it was one of the best buildings in the Russian capital.

By the 16th century books looked as they do today and since then a very little change has been made in their appearance.
II.Questions for self-examination:
1. When were the first books printed?

2. Who was the first persons printed books in English and in Russian?

Grammar practice
III.Fill in the blanks with the appropriate pronoun.

а) each / every

1. ___ soldier wants to become a general. 2. ___ student was tested in

turn. 3. They ___ have a comfortable room. 4. You can come here ____ day.

5. ___ of us would be happy to help you. 6. ___ patient wants to be healthy.

7. Aircraft fly there ___ hour. 8. The performance was a success ___ place was taken. 9. This book is divided into 20 units and ___ of them has

a different title. 10. ___ passenger must fasten the belt when the airplane takes

off or lands.

b) either/ any / neither / none

1. I saw two plays in this theatre, but ___ of them impressed me. 2. John

and Pete did not pass an exam yesterday because ___ was ready for it. 3. ___of

the two girls is very pretty, but ___ of them is married yet. 4. There are a few

cafes in this district, but ___ of them is good. 5. What would you prefer, tea or

coffee? – ___ will do. 6. There were four applicants but ___ of them impressed

me. 7. Can he speak French or German? – ___. He is not good at languages.
IVPut the verbs in brackets into Past Simple.

1. There isn’t a cloud in the sky, but it (be) cloudy in the morning. 2. Mrs.Clay usually finishes her work at half past three, but she (finish) it later yesterday afternoon. 3. Tom is playing tennis tomorrow afternoon, he (not / play)tennis

yesterday. 4. We generally have lunch at 12.30, but yesterday we (have lunch) later. 5. Now my brother smokes a lot, but he (not / smoke) before. 6. My Dad always goes to work by car, but last week he (go) to work on foot. 7. The weather is nice today, but it (be) yesterday. 8. We rarely watch television, but last week we (watch) a lot of interesting programs. 9. I usually come home from the Institute at 2.00 p.m., but last week I was on duty and (come) home a little later. 10. It seemed impossible for him to win, but he (win).11. It (take) him two hours to get to London. 12. As soon as the bus (stop), Jill (get off). 13. Jack (try) to remember what he had done last April. 14. Julius Caesar(found) the Tower of London. 15. When you (write) to your parents last time?
V. Match the words 1-10 and their definition A- J
1. Process A) a living thing that has leaves and roots and grows in soil

2. Substance B) to be made of particular parts or things

3. To contain C) when the things are related to each other

4. Current D) not the same

5. Compound E) a connection between two or more people or things

6. Different F) a strong movement of water or air in one direction

7. Plant G) a series of things that happen and have a particular result

8. To link H) to include something

9. Relation I) a chemical substance that consists of two or more elements

10. To consist J) a particular type of liquid, solid

VI. Complete the sentences with words or expressions from the box and retell the summary of the text

process ,substances, contain, current, compounds, different, plants, linked, relation, consists

Fields of chemistry

The field of chemistry is now a very large one. There are more than 30 (1)_______branches of chemistry. Some of the better known fields are inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry, analytical chemistry, biological chemistry, pharmaceutical chemistry, nuclear chemistry, industrial chemistry, colloidal chemistry, and electrochemistry.

Inorganic chemistry. It easy originally considered that the field of inorganic chemistry (2) _______ of the study of materials not derived from living organisms. However it now includes all (3) ________ other than the hydrocarbons and their derivatives.

Organic chemistry. At one time, it was thought that all substances found in (4)________ and animals could be made only by using part of a living plant or animal. The study of these substances, most of which (5)________ carbon was therefore called organic chemistry. It is now known that this idea is quite wrong, for in 1828 F. Wohler made an "organic" substance using a simple laboratory process. Organic chemistry now merely means the chemistry of carbon (6)__________.

Physical chemistry is concerned with those parts of chemistry which are closely (7)__________with physics as, for instance, the behavior of substances when a (8)_______ of electricity is passed through them.

Electrochemistry is concerned with the (9)_________ between electrical energy and chemical change. Electrolysis is the (10)__________whereby electrical energy causes a chemical change in the conducting medium, which usually is a solution or a molten substance.

I. Read and translate the text for getting the detailed content.

This university town is very beautiful. The first of its colleges was founded in 1249. The university now has thirty-five colleges and about thirteen thousand students, many of them from other countries. There were no women at Oxford until 1878, when the first women's college Lady Margaret Hall was opened. Now most colleges are open to men and women. It is not easy to enter at Oxford University as well as to study there. Outside the university there are many smaller private colleges which offer less difficult courses. Most students in these private schools take business, secretarial or English language courses. Oxford is famous for its first-class education as well as its beautiful buildings. Some of the most intelligent men and women in the country live and work here. Oxford gives them what they need: a quiet atmosphere, friendly colleagues and the library of four hundred years, which has about five million books. Outside the university there are some lovely gardens, where the students can read and relax in the summer months.


Cambridge is one of the best known towns in the world, which is famous for its university. The University of Cambridge started during the 13th century and grew steadily, until today there are more than twenty colleges. The oldest one is Peterhouse, which was founded in 1284. And the most recent is Robinson College, which was opened in 1977. But the most famous is King's College, because of its magnificent chapel. Its choir of boys and undergraduates is well known all over the world. To the north of Cambridge is the Cambridge Science Park, the modern face of the University. This park has developed in response to the need for universities to increase their contact with high technology industry. It is now home to more than sixty companies and research institutes. The whole area is very attractively designed, with a lot of space between each building. Every year thousands of students come to Cambridge from overseas to study English.


Cambridge Science Park – научныйпаркКэмбриджа

King's College – Королевскийколледж

Lady Margaret Hall – Леди-Маргарет-Холл, колледжледиМаргарет

Оксфордского университета. Основан как женский колледж в 1878,

назван в честь леди Маргарет Бофорт, матери короля Генриха VII.

Peterhouse [`pitə,haus] – коллеждПитерхаус

RobinsonCollege – коллеждРобинзона

II. Questions for self-examination:

1. When was the Oxford University found?

2. What is it famous for?

3. When did The University of Cambridge start?

4. What are the oldest and the most famous colleges of it?

Grammar practice

III.Choose a verb to fill in the blanks with Present Simple

or Past Simple.

finish, go, have, be

James usually ___ work at 4.30 p.m. Yesterday he ___ work at 1.00 p.m.

He usually ___ home by train. Yesterday he ___ home by taxi. He usually ___

dinner at home. Yesterday he ___ dinner in a restaurant with his friends. ___

to bed early. Yesterday he ___ to bed late because it __ his birthday.
IV. Complete these sentences using the verbs in brackets

in the Future Simple.

1. I’m tired. I ___ (go) to bed. 2. ___ I (answer) the question? 3. We don’t

know their address. What (we / do)? 4. Our test (not / take) long. 5. I’m afraid

they (not / wait) for us. 6. Diana (come) to the party tomorrow. 7. You (arrive)

in Paris tomorrow evening. 8. Perhaps they (buy) a new house this year. 9. He

(be) fourteen next year. 10. I’m not sure I (find) Jim at the hotel. 11. We

(not / book) the tickets in advance. 12. Do you think it (rain)? 13. Everybody

thinks they (not / get) married. 14. Dad (present) Mag a personal computer, ___ he?

15. ___ there (be) drugs for every kind of disease in 50 years’ time?
V. Fill in "will" or "be going to" in the proper form.
1. A: What do you want to do when you leave school?

B: I ____ be a dancer.

2. A: I think the house is on fire!

B: I ___ phone the fire brigade.

3. A: I’ll get the sugar from the cupboard.

B: Watch out! You ___ hit your head on the door.

4. A: Haven’t you finished those letters yet?

B: No’ I ___ stay late and finish them.

5. A: ___ you have another cake?

B: No, thank you, I’ve already had two.

6. A: Do you want to go to the park this afternoon?

B: I can’t – I ___ visit my grandparents.

7. A: This box is very heavy!

B: I ___carry it for you.

8. A: ___ you open the window, please?

B: No, it’s too cold in here.

9. A: Have you bought a birthday present for Sally?

B: Yes. I ___ give her a box of chocolates.

10. A: I’ve lost my pen.

B: I ___ give you one of mine.

11. A: Have you seen Sue today?

B: No, but I expect she ___ telephone me tonight.

12. A: Put your money in your pocket or you ___ lose it.

B: It’s O.K. It’s safer in my bag.

VI.Match the words 1-10 and their definition A- J
1) Contribution A) the job that something is designed to do

2) Science B) a substance that can flow, has no fixed shape

3) Combination C) the science that deals with heat, light, and other forms of energy

4) Chemist D) liquid used for making petrol and other fuels

5) Discovery E) the process of learning about a subject

6) Liquid F) a scientific subject such as chemistry, physics or biology

7) Oil G) a scientist who studies chemistry

8) To study H) the process of learning something that was not known before

9)Function I) something that you do that helps to make it successful

10) Physics J) something that combines several things

VII. Complete the sentences with words or expressions from the box and retell the summary of the text

contribution, science, com­bination, chemist, discovery, liquids, oil, studied, function, physics

D. I. Mendeleyev

D. I. Mendeleyev, the great Russian (1)_______ was born in Siberia on February 8, 1834. When seven years old he went to gymnasium at Tobolsk. He (2) _______very hard, he especially liked mathematics, (3)________ and history. At the age of 16 he entered the Pedagogical Institute in St. Petersburg, physico-mathematical department. He graduated from the Institute in 1855 and began to teach chemistry at the Technological In­stitute and then at the University. In 1865 Mendeleyev was granted the Doctor of Science degree for the thesis on the (4)________of alcohol with water. This work was both of great theoretical and practical significance. Mendeleyev's greatest (5)_______ was the Periodic Law. The Periodic Law suggested by Mendeleyev stated that the properties of the elements were a periodic (6) ________ of their atomic masses. He presented this work to the Russian Chem­ical Society. Mendeleyev's Periodic Law opened a new era in the history of chemistry. Mendeleyev was interested in many branches of (7)_______, indeed there is hardly any field of science that was not en­riched by his (8) _______. His numerous works dealt with many subjects: properties of (9) _________, theories of solutions, the development of the gas law, the use of (10) __________ and many others. The world is thankful to Mendeleyev for his great contri­bution to the world science. At present there is hardly any­body who doesn't know this Russian scientist and his Periodic Law.


1. Speak up! I _____ hear you!

A) can 
B) could 

C) can’t 
D) couldn’t

2. I’d love _____ help you, but I can’t. I’m sorry.

A) can 
B) could  

C) managed to 
D) to be able to

3. Women _____ vote in England until 1922.

A) can 
B) are able to 

C) managed to 
D) couldn’t

4. I’m learning Spanish because I want _____ speak when I’m in Mexico.

A) can 
B) could 

C) will be able to 
D) to be able to

5. The doctor says I _____ walk again in two weeks’ time.

A) can 
B) could 

C) will be able to 
D) to be able to

6. I’m sorry, but I _____ come to your party next week.

A) can’t 

B) couldn’t 
C) can 
D) ‘ll be able to

7. I love driving! _____ drive has changed my whole life.

A) Can 
B) Could 

C) Will be able to 
D) Being able to

8. _____ you speak Spanish?

A) May 
B) Are 

C) Can 
D) Is

9. A: _____ I go? B: Yes, you can.

A) Could 

B) Am 
C) Need 
D) Did

10. My grandfather _____ speak four languages when he was alive.

A) can 
B) could 

C) managed to 
D) couldn’t

11. The police _____ find the man who had stolen my car. He was sent to prison.

A) can 
B) could 

C) managed to 
D) couldn’t

12. _____ you _____ find all the things you wanted at the shops?

A) Did / have to 

B) Did / can 
C) Did / manage to 
D) Did / could

13. Do you like_____ football on TV?

A) watch 

B) watched 
C) watches 
D) watching

14. Thank you for_____ me.

A) helping 

B) help 
C) to help 
D) helped

15. I’m afraid of _____ mistakes.

A) to make 

B) made 
C) make 
D) making

16. It is important _____.

A) to win 

B) winning 
C) win 
D) won

17. A: This problem is too difficult. I can’t solve it.
    B: Is it really too difficult for you _____?

A) solving 

B) solve 
C) to solve 
D) solved

18. Have you got anything _____?

A) reading 

B) to read 
C) read 
D) reads

19. She is good at _____.

A) to swim 

B) swimming 
C) swims 
D) swum

20. My father does the _____ himself.

A) ironing 

B) irons 
C) to iron 
D) iron

21. My mother does all the _____.

A) cleaning 

B) to clean 
C) cleans 
D) clean

22. The boy _____ in the dentist’s chair has got toothache.

A) sitting 

B) sat 
C) sit 
D) sits

23. I _____ a friend while I _____ the shopping.

A) was meeting / did

B) met / was doing

C) meet / do

D) met / did

24. I _____ for my things when I ____ someone call my name.

A) paid / was hearing

B) pay / heard

C) was paying / hear

D) was paying / heard

25 I _____ and I _____ the knife.

A) cooked / was dropping

B) cook / drop

C) was cooking / dropped

D) cooked / dropped

26 What _____ at 8.00 last night?

A) did you do

B) you did

C) were you doing

D) are you doing

27. While I _____ this morning, I _____ my money. I don’t know how.

A) shopped / lose

B) was shopping / lost

C) shopped / was losing

D) shop / lose

28. When we came in he _____ something on the paper.

A) was writing

B) were writing

C) is writing

D) wrote

29 I _____ round and _____ Paula.

A) turned / saw

B) was turning/ was seeing

C) turn / was seeing

D) was turning / saw

30. While we _____ a drink, a waiter _____ a pile of plates.

A) had / was dropping

B) have / dropped

C) have / drop

D) were having / dropped

31. I _____ to get up this morning. It _____ and it was cold, and my bed was so warm.

A) don’t want / is raining

B) am not wanting / rains

C) wasn’t wanting / rained

D) didn’t want / was raining

32 I _____ to the news on the radio when the phone _____.

A) listened / was ringing

B) am listening / was ringing

C) was listening / rang

D) listen / is ringing

33. Now I … in the club. And what about you? What are you doing?
A) am dancing
B) is dancing
C) are danced
D) dancing

34. Right now he … home. 
A) drives
B) is driving
C) are driving
D) will drive

35. Listen! Somebody … to break into our house! Call the police immediately.
A) is trying
B) are trying
C) tries
D) tried

36 Look! All the teachers … at him. He may be expelled from school in a little while
A) is shouting
B) am shouting
C) shout
D) are shouting

37. More and more animals … extinct. We need to take care of nature.
A) is becoming
B) are becoming 
C) become
D) will become

38. Don’t talk so loudly. Our son … in his room.
A) are studying
B) studying
C) is studying
D) studies

39. My nephew … for another job these days. He wants to work at night.
A) are looking
B) look
C) looking
D) is looking

40 Just now we … the table and washing up.
A) is clearing
B) are clearing
C) clear
D) clears

41. Where _____ on holidays?

A) you go 

B) do you go
C) do you going 
D) are you go

42. I _____ lots of books every year

A) will read 

B) am reading
C) read 
D) am going to read

43. We _____ to a party next Saturday.

A) go 
B) goes 

C) are going 
D) went

44. _____ to go out tonight?

A) Do you want 

B) Are you wanting
C) Is you want 
D) Would you want

45. Every morning Tessa _____ at 7.30.

A) is getting up 

B) got up
C) get up 
D) gets up

46. Oh, someone _____ in my seat!

A) is sitting 

B) sits 
C) will sit 
D) sit

47. I’m sorry. I can’t help you at the moment. I _____ dinner.

A) will cook 

B) am cooking 
C) cook 
D) cooked

48. In Britain people _____ on the right.

A) are driving 

B) drives 
C) drive 
D) drove

49. What _____ in your free time?

A) are you doing 

B) do you do
C) you do 
D) are you do

50. Jack’s a policeman but he _____ a uniform.

A) doesn’t wear 

B) isn’t wearing
C) no wear 
D) wears

51. Anna ... a good job.

A) finds 

B) has found
C) founded 
D) have found

52. I ... a new flat a few months ago.

A) bought 

B) have been buying
C) have bought 
D) buy

53. ...Paul Simon’s latest record?

A) Have you heard 

B) Have you been hearing
C) Did you hear 
D) Are you heard

54. Sorry. I ... one of your glasses.

A) have broken 

B) broke
C) break 
D) have been breaking

55. ... you ever ... to London?

A) has / been

B) have / been

C) have / were

D) have / be

56. I ... not ... him since June.

A) did / see

B) did / seen
C) have / saw
D) have / seen

57. They ... John yesterday.

A) met
B) have met

C) meeted
D) has met

58. Mary ... Paris for London in 2013.

A) has left

B) have left
C) left
D) leaved

59. I haven’t done it ... .

A) yet
B) already 

C) just 
D) since

60. She’s ... the letter. She ... it yesterday.

A) wrote / wrote 

B) written / written
C) wrote / written 
D) written / wrote

61. Jim said the switch was dangerous and warned me .....touch it.

A) do not

B) not
C) not to
D) no

62. She said the letter was personal and didn't let me .....it.

A) reading

B) read
C) to read
D) read to

63. She didn't want .....to go.

A) they
B) I

C) his
D) me

64. I know him .....a good student.

A) is
B) has been

C) to be
D) was

65. Carol's parents always encouraged her .....hard at school.

A) to study

B) studied
C) studying
D) studies

66. When did you .....him to check the timetable?

A) asked
B) to ask

C) ask
D) ask to

67. He saw two girls .....on the stage.

A) to dance

B) dancing
C) dances
D) are dancing

68. She made her brother .....into the water.

A) to jump

B) jump

C) jumps
D) jump to

69. She didn't want her child ...... to hospital.

A) to take

B) take
C) to taken
D) to be taken

70. Who .....you to drive?

A) taught

B) teach
C) does teaches
D) to teach

71. While they were on holiday their house was broken ______ and some valuable paintings were stolen.

A) down 
B) into 

C) about 
D) away

72. After a bitter discussion they went ______ each other.

A) to 
B) at 

C) off 
D) over

73. No one really believed it when the news came that Titanic had ______.

A) gone away 

B) gone down 
C) gone out 
D) gone by

74. By the way, Bill, how much did that Regency desk go ______ in the auction on Saturday?

A) away 
B) for 

C) in 
D) off

75. I was just getting out of the bath when the lights ______.

A) went up 

B) went off 
C) went away 
D) went down

76. Don’t eat that cheese - it’s ______!

A) gone away 

B) gone out 
C) gone off 
D) gone down

77. He had such a strong accent that it was very difficult to ______ what he was saying.

A) make up 

B) make out 
C) make over 
D) make for

78. When the meeting had finished, they went ______ the plan once again.

A) up 
B) on 

C) over 
D) down

79. Lucille is ______ a difficult period at work right now.

A) going into 

B) going over 
C) going out of 
D) going through.

80. Could you hand ______ a minute? I’ll be right back.

A) on 
B) in 

C) up 
D) on to

81. Now, James, are you quite sure that I’m not putting you ______ (putting you to any trouble)?

A) after 

B) by 
C) out 
D) over

82. The police are still looking for the three prisoners who ______ (escaped from) jail at the weekend.

A) broke out of 

B) set off 
C) take up 
D) cross out

83. My boss has ______ playing golf three afternoons a week.

A) taken over 

B) taken to 
C) taken for 
D) taken out

84. Will you come along with us, … you?
a) will
b) won’t
c) are
d) aren’t

85. Linda knows five languages, … she?
a) does
b) doesn’t
c) do
d) is

86. He can jump for 60 minutes without a break, … he?
a) can
b) is
c) isn’t
d) can’t

87. We haven’t got a chair, … we?
a) have
b) haven’t
c) have not
d) are

88. I didn’t send a letter, … I?
a) didn’t
b) do
c) am
d) did

89. We are happy together, … we?
a) are
b) do
c) does
d) aren’t

90. She isn’t nice and amiable, … she?
a) Is
b) does
c) do
d) isn’t

91. I’m tall and pretty, … I?
a) are
b) am
c) am not
d) aren’t

92. Let’s change the subject, … we?
a) should
b) shall
c) are
d) do

93. Nobody answered me, …they?
a) did
b) do
c) didn’t
d) are

94 … could you know that was pregnant?
a) why
b) how
c) when
d) what

95. … were you doing last Monday at 6 o’clock?
a) what
b) why
c) when
d) who

96. … was my dog in the evening? W… is he so muddy (грязный)?
a) when/what
b) where/why
c) whom/when
d) who/where

97 … do you go for a trip? – Twice a year.
a) how much
b) how long
c) how often

d) how

98. For … are you going to purchase it? – For my little son.
a) whose
b) whom
c) which
d) what

99. At … do you aim? – I aim at money and power.
a) why
b) which
c) what
d) who

100 How … do you earn? W… is your salary?
a) many/which
b) much/what
c) much/why
d) many/whose

1.Lesson 1…………………………………………………………………..3-6

2. Lesson 2…………………………………………………………………..7-10

3. Lesson 3…………………………………………………………………..11-14

4. Lesson 4…………………………………………………………………..15-18

5. Lesson 5…………………………………………………………………..19-22

6. Lesson 6…………………………………………………………………..23-25

7. Lesson 7…………………………………………………………………..26-28

8. Lesson 8…………………………………………………………………..29-31

9. Test………………………………………………………………………..32-43


1. Энциклопедический словарь юного химика. Авторы: В.А. Крицман, В.В. Станцов. Ульянова, С.В. Гричин. Москва.

2.R.Murphy. English grammar in use. Third edition. Cambridge University Press 2004. 393 pages

3.Richard Side and Guy Wellman. Grammar and Vocabulary for Cambridge advanced and proficiency. Longman 2000. 288 pages

4.Mgr. Božena Velebná. English for Chemists. Univerzita Pavla Jozefa Šafárika v Košiciach 2009. 77 pages.

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