English is the Language of Communication «Do you speak English?»


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English is the Language of Communication

«Do you speak English?» — with this phrase begins the conversation between two people, that speak different languages and want to find a common language.

It's very good when you hear: «Yes, I do», and start talking. People of different countries and nations have to get along well with the progress in world trade and technology as well as with each other.

So it is very useful to learn foreign languages. Knowledge of foreign languages helps us to develop friendship and understanding among people.

English is very popular now. It's the language of computers, science, business, sport and politics. It's spoken all over the world. It is the official language of the United Kingdom, Ireland, the United States of America, Canada, Australia. There are more than 750 million speakers of English in the world.

Speaking a foreign language you can read papers, magazines and original books by great writers, watch satellite TV programs.

If you like travelling you can go anywhere without being afraid that other people will not understand you. English is very important to find a good job.

1.The English language is now the first language of about 400 million people, the native language of 12 nations and the official or semiofficial language of 33 more nations. 


2.There are many reasons for its popularity. 
3.First, English is easier to learn than most other languages. Second, it borrows words and phrases from the very countries into which it expands. 
4.Eighty percent of all English vocabulary comes from other languages. 
5. English is so widespread nowadays because it has become the standard language for all kinds of international communication: 80% of all information in the world’s computers is in English; nearly 50% of all the companies in Europe communicate with one another in English; 75% of all international letters and telexes are in English. 
6.English is also the international language of businesspeople, pilots, diplomats and politicians, sportsmen and scientists, doctors and students, musicians and singers. 
7.Nowadays in Russia the English language has become the most popular among foreign languages. 
8.There are many very good reasons to learn this language. 
9.Our country is a part of Europe and the world. 
10.Very little clear and detailed communication can occur among people who don’t have a common language. 
11. Learning English helps in talking to people, in reading and writing, in understanding TV and films from other countries, and opens up much a wider range of sources of information. 
12.Then when you travel in different countries you can manage a lot better if you understand and people understand you. 
13.When you speak English to people, they’re often a lot more friendly and helpful. 
14. English is the language of communication between different peoples and countries. Learning English broadens your mind and way of thinking. 
15.So English is a global language nowadays. 
16.I think that English is going to become even more important as a global language, dominating world trade, computers and media, while other languages will become localised or just die out. 
17.English will help me everywhere in my life. 

INFORMATION AND SECURITY

IT security

Sometimes referred to as computer security, Information Technology security is information security applied to technology (most often some form of computer system). It is worthwhile to note that a computer does not necessarily mean a home desktop. A computer is any device with a processor and some memory. Such devices can range from non-networked standalone devices as simple as calculators, to networked mobile computing devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. IT security specialists are almost always found in any major enterprise/establishment due to the nature and value of the data within larger businesses. They are responsible for keeping all of the technology within the company secure from malicious cyber attacks that often attempt to breach into critical private information or gain control of the internal systems.

Information assurance

The act of ensuring that data is not lost when critical issues arise. These issues include, but are not limited to: natural disasters, computer/server malfunction, physical theft, or any other instance where data has the potential of being lost. Since most information is stored on computers in our modern era, information assurance is typically dealt with by IT security specialists. One of the most common methods of providing information assurance is to have an off-site backup of the data in case one of the mentioned issues arise.

Threats

Computer system threats come in many different forms. Some of the most common threats today are software attacks, theft of intellectual property, identity theft, theft of equipment or information, sabotage, and information extortion. Most people have experienced software attacks of some sort. Viruses, worms, phishing attacks, and trojan horses are a few common examples of software attacks. The theft of intellectual property has also been an extensive issue for many businesses in the IT field. Intellectual property is the ownership of property usually consisting of some form of protection. Theft of software is probably the most common in IT businesses today. Identity theft is the attempt to act as someone else usually to obtain that person's personal information or to take advantage of their access to vital information. Theft of equipment or information is becoming more prevalent today due to the fact that most devices today are mobile. Cell phones are prone to theft and have also become far more desirable as the amount of data capacity increases. Sabotage usually consists of the destruction of an organization′s website in an attempt to cause loss of confidence to its customers. Information extortion consists of theft of a company′s property or information as an attempt to receive a payment in exchange for returning the information or property back to its owner. There are many ways to help protect yourself from some of these attacks but one of the most functional precautions is user carefulness.



Governmentsmilitarycorporationsfinancial institutionshospitals and private businesses amass a great deal of confidential information about their employees, customers, products, research and financial status. Most of this information is now collected, processed and stored on electronic computers and transmitted across networks to other computers.

Should confidential information about a business' customers or finances or new product line fall into the hands of a competitor or a black hat hacker, a business and its customers could suffer widespread, irreparable financial loss, as well as damage to the company's reputation. Protecting confidential information is a business requirement and in many cases also an ethical and legal requirement. Hence a key concern for organizations today is to derive the optimal information security investment. The renowned Gordon-Loeb Model actually provides a powerful mathematical economic approach for addressing this critical concern.[2]

For the individual, information security has a significant effect on privacy, which is viewed very differently in differentcultures.

Books in our life.
Plan:


  1. Books in our life.

  2. Importance Of Books in life

Books are one of the greatest wonders in the world. They follow us during all our life. When you read a book you enrich your mind with knowledge. This knowledge will help you in different subjects. People who read many books are very clever. If you read many books you will get a lot of information on many subjects.

Some of modern adolescents don’t like reading books. They prefer watching TV, playing computer games and other kinds of entertainment. I don’t think it’s very good. Books are not only entertainment. They help us in self-education, and also to imagine the future, to look into the past. Books develop our intellect, our soul, but, of course, except of some modern crime or love novels, which you can find in any bookshop and which are printed only for entertain. I don’t like this kind of literature and, in my opinion, reading such books is only waste of time. Everybody has his favorite books. They can be novels, detective stories, science literature and many others. All of them distinguish and form some individual traits of character in everybody.

As for me, I like to read books in my free time. Books help me to go away from life problems, to get into another world. Books pass over to us the knowledge and experience of previous generations, broaden our scope of vision. I like various literature directions and authors. It depends on my mood which book I take to read. There is no definite author which I like most of all. I like definite books and stories, for example, “One flew over the cuckoo’s nest” by Ken Kezee, “Occurrences” by D. Charms, “The little prince” by Exupery and others. Also I like novels, written by Dostoevsky, Nabokov, Mopassan and Remark. From their books you can learn more about people’s feelings, about life; you can even begin to see the world from another angle after reading these books. My favorite poets are Charle Bodler and antique poets, for example, H.V. Katull. Their poems are full of bright images.

Every book gives birth to special inner world in my mind and in my soul. I like to imagine main characters of my favorite books, their clothes, and faces. It is difficult for me to leave the characters of my favorite novels in the end of the books.

Books stay with us during the whole life: in babyhood we hear parents read us fairy tales, in our teens we swallow exciting suspense novels page after page and when we become adults we still find gripping books that absorb us.


But today many people say that modern life is so fast and full of action that they don’t have time and desire to read books; they consider reading to be nothing more than waste of time. Furthermore there are a lot of people who are sure that products of modern technologies like computers can replace traditional books.

Nevertheless, there still exist people, who receive pleasure from the special atmosphere that books create and who believe that books will never disappear from their lives. They feel certain that books teach us what is right and what is wrong; they enrich the inner world of a reader and certainly entertain him. As opposed to computers books are portable and you can enjoy reading even in public transport.

Though I’m not a bookworm I like to spend my free time reading a good book. I’m fond of reading because it provides a lot of space for imagination: I like to conjure the characters and how they look like, I always try to predict how I would behave if I were in the shoes of this or that character. When I read a book I usually entirely immerse myself into it; I live in this imaginary world and enjoy it.

Mass media

Mass media denotes a section of the media specifically designed to reach a large audience. The term was coined in the 1920s with the advent of nationwide radio networks, mass-circulation newspapers and magazines. However, some forms of mass media such as books andmanuscripts had already been in use for centuries.

Mass media includes Internet media (like blogsmessage boardspodcasts, and video sharing) because individuals now have a means to exposure that is comparable in scale to that previously restricted to a select group of mass media producers. The communications audience has been viewed by some commentators as forming a mass society with special characteristics, notably atomization or lack of social connections, which render it especially susceptible to the influence of modern mass-media techniques such as advertising and propaganda.

The term "public media" is less used and can be defined as "media whose mission is to serve or engage a public." (http://opencontent.wgbh.org/report/glossary.html)

Marshall McLuhan, one of the biggest critics in media's history, brought up the idea that "the medium is the message."

History


Types of drama in numerous cultures were probably the first mass-media, going back into the Ancient World.

The first dated printed book known is the "Diamond Sutra", printed in China in 868 AD, although it is clear that books were printed earlier. Movable clay type was invented in 1041 in China. However, due to the slow spread of literacy to the masses in China, and the relatively high cost of paper there, the earliest printed mass-medium was probably European popular prints from about 1400. Although these were produced in huge numbers, very few early examples survive, and even most known to be printed before about 1600 have not survived. Johannes Gutenbergprinted the first book on a printing press with movable type in 1453. This invention transformed the way the world received printed materials, although books remained too expensive really to be called a mass-medium for at least a century after that.

Newspapers developed from about 1612, with the first example in English in 1620 [1] ; but they took until the nineteenth century to reach a mass-audience directly.

During the 20th century, the growth of mass media was driven by technology, including that which allowed much duplication of material. Physical duplication technologies such as printing, record pressing and film duplication allowed the duplication of books, newspapers and movies at low prices to huge audiences. Radio and television allowed the electronic duplication of information for the first time.

Mass media had the economics of linear replication: a single work could make money. An example of Riel and Neil's theory. proportional to the number of copies sold, and as volumes went up, unit costs went down, increasing profit margins further. Vast fortunes were to be made in mass media.

In a democratic society, the media can serve the electorate about issues regarding government and corporate entities (see Media influence).

Some consider the concentration of media ownership to be a grave threat to democracy.

Netiquette



"Rules of the Internet" redirects here. For the 4chan internet meme, see Rule 34 (Internet meme) § Variations and corollaries.

Netiquette,[1] a colloquial portmanteau of network etiquette or Internet etiquette, is a set of social conventions that facilitate interaction over networks, ranging from Usenet and mailing lists to blogs and forums.

Like the network itself, these developing norms remain in a state of flux and vary from community to community. The points most strongly emphasized about Usenet netiquette often include using simple electronic signatures, and avoiding multiposting, cross-posting, off-topic posting, hijacking a discussion thread, and other techniques used to minimize the effort required to read a post or a thread. Similarly, some Usenet guidelines call for use of unabbreviated English[2][3] while users of instant messaging protocols like SMS occasionally encourage just the opposite, bolstering use of SMS language. However, many online communities frown upon this practice.

Common rules for e-mail[4] and Usenet such as avoiding flamewars and spam are constant across most mediums and communities. Another rule is to avoid typing in all caps or grossly enlarging script for emphasis, which is considered to be the equivalent of shouting or yelling. Other commonly shared points, such as remembering that one's posts are (or can easily be made) public, are generally intuitively understood by publishers of Web pages and posters to Usenet, although this rule is somewhat flexible depending on the environment. On more private protocols, however, such as e-mail and SMS, some users take the privacy of their posts for granted. One-on-one communications, such as private messages on chat forums and direct SMSs, may be considered more private than other such protocols, but infamous breaches surround even these relatively private media. For example, Paris Hilton's Sidekick PDA was cracked in 2005, resulting in the publication of her private photos, SMS history, address book, etc.[5]

A group e-mail sent by Cerner CEO Neal Patterson to managers of a facility in Kansas City concerning "Cerner's declining work ethic" read, in part, "The parking lot is sparsely used at 8 A.M.; likewise at 5 P.M. As managers—you either do not know what your EMPLOYEES are doing; or YOU do not CARE ... In either case, you have a problem and you will fix it or I will replace you."[6] After the e-mail was forwarded to hundreds of other employees, it quickly leaked to the public. On the day that the e-mail was posted to Yahoo!, Cerner's stock price fell by over 22%[7] from a high market capitalization of US$1.5 billion.[8]



Beyond matters of basic courtesy and privacy, e-mail syntax (defined by RFC 2822) allows for different types of recipients. The primary recipient, defined by the To: line, can reasonably be expected to respond, but recipients of carbon copies cannot be, although they still might.[9] Likewise, misuse of the CC: functions in lieu of traditional mailing lists can result in serious technical issues. In late 2007, employees of the United States Department of Homeland Security used large CC: lists in place of a mailing list to broadcast messages to several hundred users. Misuse of the "reply to all" caused the number of responses to that message to quickly expand to some two million messages, bringing down their mail server.[10] In cases like this, rules of netiquette have more to do with efficient sharing of resources—ensuring that the associated technology continues to function—rather than more basic etiquette. On Usenet, cross-posting, in which a single copy of a message is posted to multiple groups is intended to prevent this from happening, but many newsgroups frown on the practice, as it means users must sometimes read many copies of a message in multiple groups. "When someone makes a mistake – whether it's a spelling error or a spelling flame, a stupid question or an unnecessarily long answer – be kind about it. If it's a minor error, you may not need to say anything. Even if you feel strongly about it, think twice before reacting. Having good manners yourself doesn't give you license to correct everyone else.

ENGLISH AS A WORLD LANGUAGE
 Nowadays English has become the world's most important and most universal language. It is the official language in over forty countries and the most used language in international business, science, medicine, trade and cultural relations. Over 300 million people speak it as a mother tongue (1). The native speakers of English live in Great Britain, the USA, Australia and New Zealand. English is one of the official languages in the Irish Republic, Canada, the South Africa Republic.
   It is one of the official languages of the United Nations Organisation and other political organisations. It is the language of world's scientific literature and computers technology.
   England's history helps to understand the present condition of English. Many English words were borrowed (2) from the language of Angles and Saxons. Hundreds of French words came into English. Many new words were brought by traders and travellers.
   To know the English language today is absolutely necessary for every educated per¬son, for every good specialist. English is everywhere in our life. It is in signs, clothing, soft drinks (3), and household products (4) around the world. The names of pop groups, computers software (5), and magazines are often written in English.
   English words are also used as elements of magic to be included on T-shirts (6), sweaters (7), caps etc. Some think English is chic (8), stylish (9), even when the language on these designed items (10) makes no sense (11).
   That is why in order to understand ourselves and the world around us we have to study foreign languages and English in particular (12).

1). Today English is the language of the world. 2). It is only in the course of the last hundred years that English has become a world language. 3). In Shakespeare's time it was a «provincial» language of secondary importance with only 6 million native speakers. 4). Nowadays over 300 million people speak it as a mother tongue.

5). English is the official language of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, of the United States of America, of Australia and New Zealand. 6). It is used as one of the official languages in Canada, the Republic of South Africa and the Irish Republic.

7). English is also spoken as a second language in the former British and US colonies. 8). In a number of speakers (400 million) it is second only to Chinese.

9). English is the major international language of communication in such areas as science, technology and business. 10). It is the language of literature, education, modem music, and international tourism. 11). English is the major language of diplomacy, it is one of the official languages of the United Nation organization and other political organizations.

12). Russia is integrating into the world community and the problem of learning English for the purpose of communication is especially urgent today.

13). One should say that English is not an easy language to learn. 14). There is a big problem of spelling, of the large number of exceptions to any rule. 15). This language is very idiomatic and the prepositions are terrible. 16). English is one of those languages which may seem easy in the beginning, but then the bridge between basic knowledge and mastery takes a long time to cross. 17). But if you cross this bridge it will give you great satisfaction. 18). You will be able to speak to people from other countries, to read foreign authors in the original, which makes your outlook wider. 19). To know English today is absolutely necessary for every educated man, for every good specialist.

For as long as I can remember myself, I’ve been fascinated with the English language and all things related to it.

I had my first encounter with English when I was around ten years old, and I haven’t stopped loving and learning the language ever since!

Surely, there were plenty of challenges along the way, and I’m not ashamed to admit that I didn’t actually achieve English fluency up until seven years ago. I arrived in Ireland back in 2002 and it took me five years to figure out what exactly I’d been doing wrong all along in terms of my English improvement.

Anyway, that hasn’t changed my love for the language and now I believe more strongly than ever that ENGLISH IS THE WORLD’S LANGUAGE – at least that’s how I feel about it, and here are 10 reasons why I think so:

1. English is the Business & Finance Language

Let’s face it my friends – nowadays the global economy is more consolidated than ever, large corporations have established themselves all over the world in almost every country and all stock, commodity and currency markets are so closely tied up that even the tiniest changes in an important stock price will have a immediate effect on other prices worldwide.

It is only common sense that in a situation like this a common language would be chosen to make the information flow as easy and effortless as possible, and whether you like it or not – English is the language serving this purpose!

2. Worldwide Domination of Hollywood Blockbusters

Yes, there are a lot of regional film markets in other languages such as Spanish, Portuguese, French, German, Chinese, Russian – you name it!

The Secected 10 Major Security Threats observed in 2014 are listed below:

1st: Unauthorized use of Internet banking credential and credit card information

Attackers stole Internet banking credentials and credit card data by virus or phishing, and used the data to make fraudulent wire transfers fraudulent charges impersonating the users. In 2014, there has been a significant increase in fraudulent wire transfers exploiting business accounts.

2nd: Information Leakage by Insiders

Incidents where a contractor working at a big company stole the sensitive data and sold it to the third parties became a social problem. If an insider decides to do something malicious, he or she can freely do so within his or her privileges. Therefore, it is necessary to continuously manage and monitor the user accounts strictly, for example, implementing strict access control based on the importance of the data, and deleting the users’ privilege when they quit.

3rd: Cyber Espionage through Targeted Attacks

Targeted attacks that remotely control a PC infected with virus and steal internal data have continued to prey on public and private organizations. In 2014, it is confirmed that their tactics became further adept – attackers using the targets’ real business partners and organizations associated with them in a way as a stepping stone to infiltrate the targets.

4th: Unauthorized Use of Web Services

If a user’s ID and password are stolen by an attacker, the attacker can log in to the web services spoofing the user. In 2014, there were a number of cases where the user IDs and passwords were stolen from vulnerable web services and abused for unauthorized access to other web services. Those who were using the same ID and password for multiple web services often became the victims.

5th: Leakage of User Information from Web Services

Cyber incidents where customer information such as name and address were stolen from web services occurred frequently. If the stolen information includes data like ID, password and credit card data, it could cause a wide range of impact, such as unauthorized login and monetary damages.

6th: Cyber Terrorism by Hacker Collectives

In 2014, a U.S. entertainment giant was attacked and suffered from information leak and services suspension. In South Korea, internal data was stolen from a nuclear plant operator and disclosed online. Because the attackers claimed responsibility and/or disclosed stolen data to the public in these cases, the incidents gave a big impact on the society.

7th: Website Hacking

There have been many website hacks. The websites of companies and organizations have been hacked in such a way that just accessing a hacked website will infect the visitor’s PC with virus. If hacked, not only companies and organizations themselves will suffer damage (service outage until fully recovered), but also their website visitors may suffer damage (infected with virus).

8th: Attacks That Exploit Internet Infrastructure Technologies

Services provided on the Internet are built upon trust in the underlying Internet infrastructure technologies, such as DNS and digital certificates. In 2014, the attacks that exploited these technologies to redirect the users to malicious websites emerged. Because such attacks are difficult for the general Internet users to detect and prevent, the Internet service providers are strongly expected to take counter actions.

9th: Attacks That Leverage Response Time Lag After Vulnerability Disclosure

In 2014, the vulnerabilities in popular software, such as Apache Struts, OpenSSL and bash, were disclosed in a row, and many attacks targeting them were observed. The users – both system administrators and general users - need to take action as soon as possible as to whether or not they are using the software affected by disclosed vulnerabilities, attacks trying to exploit them already exist, how much they would affect your business or digital life.

10th: Malicious Smartphone Applications



Malicious smartphone applications that look cool and sound convenient may steal personal data, such as address book data, without the user noticing. Stolen data may be exploited for spamming and/or fraud, causing damage for friends and acquaintances.




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