Enlightenment Ideas  writings of John Locke, Voltaire, & Jean Rousseau; Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine


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Enlightenment Ideas  writings of John Locke, Voltaire, & Jean Rousseau; Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine.

  • Enlightenment Ideas  writings of John Locke, Voltaire, & Jean Rousseau; Thomas Jefferson and Thomas Paine.

  • Inspiration of American and French Revolutions.

  • Preoccupation of Spain & Portugal in fighting the Napoleonic Wars.

  • Creole discontent at being left out of government jobs and trade concessions.















Creole leader of the revolutions in Venezuela.

  • Creole leader of the revolutions in Venezuela.

  • Spent time in Europe and the newly-independent United States.

  • Called the “George Washington of South America.”



Creole officer who had trained in European armies

  • Creole officer who had trained in European armies

  • Liberated Argentina from Spanish control.











Failure of Bolivar’s dream for a united South America:

  • Failure of Bolivar’s dream for a united South America:

  • By 1830s, geographic factors

  • (Andes, the Amazon, etc.)

  • plus cultural differences

  • &

  • The Egos of Generals defeated attempts at unification.





The Portuguese royal family escaped Napoleon by fleeing to Brazil.

  • The Portuguese royal family escaped Napoleon by fleeing to Brazil.

  • Pedro I set up a new, independent kingdom in 1821 when his father returned to Portugal.

  • Pedro II assumed full power after Pedro I abdicated his throne.



The wars disrupted trade.

  • The wars disrupted trade.

  • The wars devastated the cities and the countryside



By 1830, nearly all Latin American countries were ruled by Caudillos (Military Dictators)

  • By 1830, nearly all Latin American countries were ruled by Caudillos (Military Dictators)

  • Mostly wealthy creole aristocrats.

  • The upper classes supported dictatorship because it kept the lower classes out of power

  • The lower classes did not have experience with democracy.

  • Some attempted to make improvements, but most just cared about themselves and their families and friends



Feuds among leaders.

  • Feuds among leaders.

  • Geographic barriers.

  • The social hierarchy continued from the past.

  • Conservatives favored the old social order.

  • Liberals wanted land reform.

  • Dependence on foreign nations for capital and for economic investments.

  • The role of the Catholic Church as the exclusive state religion.

  • Better treatment of Indians and mestizos was blocked by the elite's fears of losing tax revenue and control



Now that trade was not restricted to the mother country, the U.S. and Great Britain became the new countries’ major trading partners.

  • Now that trade was not restricted to the mother country, the U.S. and Great Britain became the new countries’ major trading partners.

  • A colonial economy continued…Latin America mainly exported cash crops and raw materials while importing manufactured goods.

  • As the imbalance of trade grew, Latin American countries took out large loans from the U.S., Britain, and Germany to build infrastructure.

  • When the countries could not pay back their loans, foreign lenders gained control of major industries in Latin America.









Western Hemisphere is closed to further European Colonization

  • Western Hemisphere is closed to further European Colonization

  • Attempts to colonize would be viewed unfavorably

  • No interference with existing colonies

  • U. S. would stay out of European affairs



Causes

  • Causes

    • Spanish misrule
    • Jose Marti
      • Cuban journalist living in exile in the United States.
      • Urged the U.S. to intervene on behalf of the rebels against the Spanish.
    • American business interests insecure




US defeats Spain and takes Spanish controlled:

  • US defeats Spain and takes Spanish controlled:

  • Cuba, Puerto Rico, Philippines, Guam



Brought the United States directly into Latin American affairs

  • Brought the United States directly into Latin American affairs

  • Cuba gained independence, but became an American economic dependent

  • Puerto Rico was annexed by US



US dominated affairs in the Americas.

  • US dominated affairs in the Americas.

  • Caribbean Sea

    • Vital defense of the U.S.
    • European relations with Latin America
      • South and Central American Countries were poor and often borrowed money from European countries then were unable to repay the loans.


To prevent European countries from attacking these countries in the Western Hemisphere and thereby violating the Monroe doctrine, Theodore Roosevelt announced that “chronic wrongdoing” by any Latin American nation entitled the United States to intervene in its affairs.

  • To prevent European countries from attacking these countries in the Western Hemisphere and thereby violating the Monroe doctrine, Theodore Roosevelt announced that “chronic wrongdoing” by any Latin American nation entitled the United States to intervene in its affairs.

  • This changed the Monroe doctrine by allowing one Western Hemisphere nation the intervene in the affairs of another.





When Colombia was reluctant to meet American proposals for building the Panama Canal, the United States backed a revolution in Panama (1903) and gained exclusive rights over the canal.

  • When Colombia was reluctant to meet American proposals for building the Panama Canal, the United States backed a revolution in Panama (1903) and gained exclusive rights over the canal.

  • Since this canal provided a short cut between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, it benefited American trade and thereby also furthered economic imperialism.







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