Europe wanted trade


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Europe wanted trade

  • Europe wanted trade

  • World divided into independent spheres

  • Limited previous contact with the Americas had occurred

  • Vikings



Most educated men believed that the world was round

  • Most educated men believed that the world was round

  • There were certainly stories of other lands, but they were not focused on the Western Hemisphere



Trade routes expanded

  • Trade routes expanded

  • Europeans developed a taste for Asian goods

  • The development of banking



Caravels

  • Caravels

  • Ship technology

  • Armaments



Astrolabe

  • Astrolabe

  • Compass

  • Practical knowledge of winds and currents



Early and Medieval Maps

  • Early and Medieval Maps







SEARCH FOR RESOURCES AND LAND

  • SEARCH FOR RESOURCES AND LAND



TRADE CONTACTS

  • TRADE CONTACTS



MISSIONARY ACTIVITY

  • MISSIONARY ACTIVITY





The Portuguese began the era of European exploration



Son of the king of Portugal

  • Son of the king of Portugal

  • Had been a crusader

  • Investigated possible trade opportunities in Africa



Originally explored Africa



West African coast

  • West African coast

  • Trade developed



Began around 1443

  • Began around 1443

  • Pope Nicholas V sanctioned the slave trade

  • Local slave trade already existed

  • Sugar plantations



Traveled the coast of Africa

  • Traveled the coast of Africa

  • Around the tip of southern Africa in 1488

  • Returned to Portugal



Strong relationship with the Kongo

  • Strong relationship with the Kongo

  • In the east, Zimbabwe and Mozambique



1498, sailed for India

  • 1498, sailed for India

  • Reached India

  • Sea route



Largest European empire in Asia

  • Largest European empire in Asia

  • Trade with the Arabian Peninsula

  • Other trade interests in East Asia

  • Trade with India



16th-century commander

  • 16th-century commander

  • Seized control of several critical ports

  • Difficult to secure full control over the area

  • First governor general in India



Control over the empire weakened

  • Control over the empire weakened

  • Portugal taken over in 1580

  • Japan adopted a policy of isolationism

  • Other European countries seized Portuguese interests throughout Asia



Did not focus on Asian markets



Latecomers to Asia

  • Latecomers to Asia

  • Established East India Companies

  • The English, French, and Dutch



Empires in the New World—the result of a mistake

  • Empires in the New World—the result of a mistake

  • Consequences



Italian navigator

  • Italian navigator

  • Sought patron for his exploration idea

  • Sailed under the title “Admiral of the Seas”



Sailed west



The Spanish were delighted

  • The Spanish were delighted

  • Second journey

  • Third journey

  • Fourth journey



Early life

  • Early life

  • Exploration

  • Naming the New World



Other explorers

  • Other explorers

  • Motivations

  • Spanish conquistadors



Conquered the Aztec Empire (1519–1521)

  • Conquered the Aztec Empire (1519–1521)

  • Defeated Montezuma

  • Governor of Mexico



Conquered the Incas

  • Conquered the Incas

  • Held Atahualpa, the Inca ruler, prisoner

  • Once he controlled the area, he exploited the Incas



Pedro Alvares Cabral





Explored the coast of South America

  • Explored the coast of South America

  • Entered Pacific Ocean



Difficult Pacific journey

  • Difficult Pacific journey

  • Philippines and the Indies

  • Juan Sebastian del Cano



Portuguese and Spanish colonize New World

  • Portuguese and Spanish colonize New World

  • Treaty of Tordesillas



Built an enormous empire in the Americas

  • Built an enormous empire in the Americas



Christian missionaries

  • Christian missionaries

  • Christian missionaries and Native American rights





Exploitation of gold and silver

  • Exploitation of gold and silver

  • Plantations established

  • Trade increased



Pedro Cabral

  • Pedro Cabral

  • Organization and structure of Brazil

  • Economic opportunities





Samuel de Champlain

  • Samuel de Champlain

  • Furs

  • Jesuit missionaries



Mississippi and Louisiana

  • Mississippi and Louisiana

  • New France remained small



“Northwest Passage” to Asia

  • “Northwest Passage” to Asia

  • Henry VIII

  • Failure to find Northwest Passage



Slow colonization

  • Slow colonization

  • The 13 colonies

  • Causes of migration



Although much of the conflict was between the Europeans and the lands they conquered, there was also conflict between the Europeans over colonial interests.

  • Although much of the conflict was between the Europeans and the lands they conquered, there was also conflict between the Europeans over colonial interests.









European diseases

  • European diseases

  • Smallpox, measles, influenza, and whooping cough



Population changes

  • Population changes

  • Migration and colonization

  • Forced migration



World connected by trade

  • World connected by trade

  • Silver, bullionism, and mercantilism



How it worked

  • How it worked

  • European supremacy



One of the most critical events in modern history

  • One of the most critical events in modern history

  • Creation of world network

  • New role for Europe




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