Europe wanted trade


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Europe wanted trade

  • Europe wanted trade

  • World divided into independent spheres

  • Limited previous contact with the Americas had occurred

  • Vikings



Most educated men believed that the world was round

  • Most educated men believed that the world was round

  • There were certainly stories of other lands, but they were not focused on the Western Hemisphere



Trade routes expanded

  • Trade routes expanded

  • Europeans developed a taste for Asian goods

  • The development of banking



Caravels

  • Caravels

  • Ship technology

  • Armaments



Astrolabe

  • Astrolabe

  • Compass

  • Practical knowledge of winds and currents



Early and Medieval Maps

  • Early and Medieval Maps







SEARCH FOR RESOURCES AND LAND

  • SEARCH FOR RESOURCES AND LAND



TRADE CONTACTS

  • TRADE CONTACTS



MISSIONARY ACTIVITY

  • MISSIONARY ACTIVITY





The Portuguese began the era of European exploration



Son of the king of Portugal

  • Son of the king of Portugal

  • Had been a crusader

  • Investigated possible trade opportunities in Africa



Originally explored Africa



West African coast

  • West African coast

  • Trade developed



Began around 1443

  • Began around 1443

  • Pope Nicholas V sanctioned the slave trade

  • Local slave trade already existed

  • Sugar plantations



Traveled the coast of Africa

  • Traveled the coast of Africa

  • Around the tip of southern Africa in 1488

  • Returned to Portugal



Strong relationship with the Kongo

  • Strong relationship with the Kongo

  • In the east, Zimbabwe and Mozambique



1498, sailed for India

  • 1498, sailed for India

  • Reached India

  • Sea route



Largest European empire in Asia

  • Largest European empire in Asia

  • Trade with the Arabian Peninsula

  • Other trade interests in East Asia

  • Trade with India



16th-century commander

  • 16th-century commander

  • Seized control of several critical ports

  • Difficult to secure full control over the area

  • First governor general in India



Control over the empire weakened

  • Control over the empire weakened

  • Portugal taken over in 1580

  • Japan adopted a policy of isolationism

  • Other European countries seized Portuguese interests throughout Asia



Did not focus on Asian markets



Latecomers to Asia

  • Latecomers to Asia

  • Established East India Companies

  • The English, French, and Dutch



Empires in the New World—the result of a mistake

  • Empires in the New World—the result of a mistake

  • Consequences



Italian navigator

  • Italian navigator

  • Sought patron for his exploration idea

  • Sailed under the title “Admiral of the Seas”



Sailed west



The Spanish were delighted

  • The Spanish were delighted

  • Second journey

  • Third journey

  • Fourth journey



Early life

  • Early life

  • Exploration

  • Naming the New World



Other explorers

  • Other explorers

  • Motivations

  • Spanish conquistadors



Conquered the Aztec Empire (1519–1521)

  • Conquered the Aztec Empire (1519–1521)

  • Defeated Montezuma

  • Governor of Mexico



Conquered the Incas

  • Conquered the Incas

  • Held Atahualpa, the Inca ruler, prisoner

  • Once he controlled the area, he exploited the Incas



Pedro Alvares Cabral





Explored the coast of South America

  • Explored the coast of South America

  • Entered Pacific Ocean



Difficult Pacific journey

  • Difficult Pacific journey

  • Philippines and the Indies

  • Juan Sebastian del Cano



Portuguese and Spanish colonize New World

  • Portuguese and Spanish colonize New World

  • Treaty of Tordesillas



Built an enormous empire in the Americas

  • Built an enormous empire in the Americas



Christian missionaries

  • Christian missionaries

  • Christian missionaries and Native American rights





Exploitation of gold and silver

  • Exploitation of gold and silver

  • Plantations established

  • Trade increased



Pedro Cabral

  • Pedro Cabral

  • Organization and structure of Brazil

  • Economic opportunities





Samuel de Champlain



Mississippi and Louisiana

  • Mississippi and Louisiana

  • New France remained small



“Northwest Passage” to Asia

  • “Northwest Passage” to Asia

  • Henry VIII

  • Failure to find Northwest Passage



Slow colonization



Although much of the conflict was between the Europeans and the lands they conquered, there was also conflict between the Europeans over colonial interests.

  • Although much of the conflict was between the Europeans and the lands they conquered, there was also conflict between the Europeans over colonial interests.









European diseases

  • European diseases

  • Smallpox, measles, influenza, and whooping cough



Population changes

  • Population changes

  • Migration and colonization

  • Forced migration



World connected by trade

  • World connected by trade

  • Silver, bullionism, and mercantilism



How it worked

  • How it worked

  • European supremacy



One of the most critical events in modern history

  • One of the most critical events in modern history

  • Creation of world network

  • New role for Europe




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