Exhibit 13-1 The Real Exchange Rate


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Exhibit 13-1 The Real Exchange Rate



Exhibit 13-2 Real Exchange Rate Is an Index Number



Exhibit 13-3 Real versus Nominal Exchange Rates



Exhibit 13-4 Percentage Change in the Real Exchange Rate



Exhibit 13-5 Percentage Changes: Nominal Exchange Rates, Inflation Rates, and Real Exchange Rates



Exhibit 13-6 Review of Exchange Rate Measures



Exhibit 13-7 Nominal Effective and Real Effective Exchange Rates for the U.S. Dollar Relative to a Broad Index of Major U.S. Trading Partners



Exhibit 13-8 Nominal Effective and Real Effective Exchange Rates for the U.S. Dollar Relative to an Index of Major Foreign Currencies



Exhibit 13-9 Supply and Demand: What Goes on the Horizontal Axis?



Exhibit 13-10 Putting Supply and Demand into a Familiar Context



Exhibit 13-11 Swiss Franc Market and Dollar Market for Foreign Exchange



Exhibit 13-12 Major Groups That Demand Swiss Francs



Exhibit 13-13 Major Groups That Supply Swiss Francs



Exhibit 13-14 Equilibrium Exchange Rate and Quantity per Period



Exhibit 13-15 Demand for Swiss Francs is a Mirror Image of the Dollar Supply



Exhibit 13-16 Supply of Swiss Francs is a Mirror Image of the Dollar Demand



Exhibit 13-17 Major Factors That Affect Nominal Exchange Rates



Exhibit 13-18 Effects of an Increase in Mexico’s Relative Price Level



Exhibit 13-19 Effects of an Increase in Mexico’s Relative Real GDP



Exhibit 13-20 Effects of Falling Mexican Interest Rates Relative to the United States



Exhibit 13-21 Effects of an Increase in Mexico’s Relative Risks or Taxes, or Effects of Relatively Unfavorable Mexican Investment Return Expectations



Exhibit 13-22 Spot Market Speculation Effects of an Expected Appreciation of the Peso



Exhibit 13-23 Forward Market Speculation Effects of an Expected Increase in the Peso’s Value



Exhibit 13-24 Effects of Bank of Mexico Intervention to Raise the Peso’s Value



Exhibit 13-25 The Effects of Bank of Mexico Foreign Exchange Market Intervention to Raise the Value of the Peso



Exhibit 13-26 Summary of Effects of Central Bank Intervention



Exhibit 13-27 Alternative Exchange Rate Systems



Exhibit 13-28 Stabilizing Central Bank Intervention



Exhibit 13-29 De Facto Exchange Rate Regimes*

  • Source: International Monetary Fund, Classification of Exchange Rate Arrangements and Monetary Policy Frameworks, De Facto Exchange Rate Arrangements and Anchors of Monetary Policy as of December 31, 2005, http://www.imf.org/external/np/mfd/er/2005/eng/1205.htm#table (accessed September 26, 2006).



Economic Information for Switzerland, 2001–2005



Exhibit A13-1 Downward-Sloping Supply of Swiss Francs




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