Famous Fabulists of all times


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Famous Fabulists of all times

  • Fables are the timeless expression of the imagination -- a continuous creative process of making sense of the universe." They can be understood as magic mirrors in which the reflection not just of our hopes and fears, but also of those people from the earliest times can be viewed.

  • Some of these stories are unimaginably old and almost certainly recounted long before the birth of writing and the dawn of recorded history."


Panchatantra

  • One of India's most influential contributions to world literature, the Panchatantra (also spelled Pañcatantra or Pañca-tantra) consists of five books of animal fables and magic tales (some 87 stories in all) that were compiled, in their current form, between the third and fifth centuries AD. It is believed that even then the stories were already ancient. The tales' self-proclaimed purpose is to educate the sons of royalty.

  • Although the original author's or compiler's name is unknown, an Arabic translation from about 750 AD attributes the Panchatantra to a wise man called Bidpai, which is probably a Sanskrit word meaning "court scholar."

  • The fables of the Panchatantra found their way to Europe through oral folklore channels and by way of Persian and Arabic translations. They substantially influenced medieval writers of fables.

  • http://www.market4us.com/panchatantra/content.html



Aesop (c.620-560)

  • Fable writer whose many stories are still read.

  • Aesop's fables purvey a timeless folk

  • wisdom which triumphs over all trials and

  • tribulations.

  • Aesop was originally a Phrygian slave on the

  • island of Samos, but managed to earn his freedom

  • through his wits. He was then to spend his life at

  • the court of the famous king Croesus.

  • After a journey to Delphi, Aesop had openly

  • criticized the oracles' priesthood, saying they were

  • the parasites of Apollo. This cost him his life,

  • since the angry priests murdered him.

  • A statue of the great fabulist was erected to his

  • memory at Athens, the work of Lysippus, one of

  • the most famous Greek sculptors.



Nasreddin Hodja 13th c

  • Hodja Nasreddin is a legendary satirical Sufi

  • figure believed to have lived in Akşehir around the 13th

  • century under the Seljuq rule. Nasreddin was a populist

  • philosopher remembered for his funny stories, tales and

  • anecdotes. The oldest manuscript of Nasreddin was

  • found in 1571.

  • Many nations of the Middle East and Central Asia claim

  • Nasreddin as their own (i.e. Turks, Afghans, Iranians,

  • and Uzbeks, and his name is spelled differently in various

  • cultures—and often preceded or followed by titles

  • "Hodja", "Mullah", or "Effendi“).

  • Today, Nasreddin stories are told in a wide variety of

  • regions, and have been translated into many languages.

  • He has been very popular in China for many years and

  • still appears in variety of movies cartoons, and novels.

  • The "International Nasreddin Hodja Festival" is held

  • annually in Akşehir between July 5–10.



Anansi tales

  • Anansi Stories are part of an ancient mythology that is rooted in West African folklore and concerns the interaction between divine and semi-divine beings, royalty, humans, animals, plants and inanimate objects.

  • Anansi the trickster is one of the most important characters of West African and Caribbean folklore.

  • Stories of Anansi became such a prominent and familiar part of Ashanti oral culture that the word Anansesem - "spider tales" -came to embrace all kinds of fables. In the Southern United States he has evolved into Aunt Nancy.

  • These stories continue to provide a moral foundation for the community.



Giufà

  • The trickster Giufà, who is described elsewhere as "stupid, lazy, and cunning" (can one be both stupid and cunning?), is featured in many Italian folktales. His exploits compare to those of Germany's Till Eulenspiegel and Turkey's Nasreddin Hodja, to mention but two of his many counterparts in other nations.



Hitar Petar or Itar Pejo

  • Hitar Petar or Itar Pejo is a character of Bulgarian folklore which first appeared in the 16th–17th century, when Bulgaria was still under Ottoman rule.Tales on his deeds are present in the folklore of all regions inhabited by Bulgarians.

  • Hitar Petar is a poor village farmer but possesses remarkable slyness and wit. He is often presented as the "typical Bulgarian" and the perpetual antagonist of either the rich nobles, clerics and money lenders or the "typical Ottoman" — Nasreddin, whom he always manages to outwit.

  • He is similar to other characters of European and Oriental folklore, more notable Nasreddin of Islamic folklore, the German Till Eulenspiegel the Hungarian Lúdas Matyi and the Jewish Hershel Ostropoler.



Till Eulenspiegel

  • Till Eulenspiegel a north German peasant clown of the 14th c. who was immortalized in books describing his practical jokes on clerics and townsfolk. The first Till chapbook (c.1500) was probably in Saxon, but the story it told spread all over Europe and North Britain. Till is the hero of a tone poem by Richard Strauss and of many novels, poems, and stories.



Jean de La Fontaine (1621-1695)

  • French poet whose FABLES rank among the masterpieces of world literature. His FABLES, usually called 'La Fontaine Fables', were published over the last 25 years of his life. The first volume includes some 240 poems and timeless stories of countryfolk, heroes from Greek mythology, and familiar beasts from the fables of Aesop, from which La Fontaine unhesitatingly borrowed his material. Each tale has a moral – an instruction how to behave correctly or how life should be lived. In the second volume La Fontaine based his tales on stories from Asia and other places.

  • They were widely translated and imitated during the 17th and 18th centuries all over Europe



The brothers Grimm

  • German folklorists and philologists Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm and Wilhelm Carl Grimm spent most of their lives in literary research as librarians and professors at the Universities of Göttingen and Berlin.

  • They published Children's and Household Tales in 1812, a collection which became known as "Grimm's Fairy Tales" with over two hundred folk tales. Although their intention was to preserve such material as part of German cultural and literary history, and their collection was first published with scholarly notes and no illustration, the tales soon came into the possession of young readers.

  • Some of their tales can be found here:

  • http://www.infoplease.com/t/lit/grimm-fairy-tales/

  • http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/grimm.html

  • http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~spok/grimmtmp/



Ivan (Andreyevich) Krylov (1769-1844)

  • Russian writer of fables in the tradition of Aesop and La Fontaine.

  • Krylov satirized social and individual faults in the guise of beasts, producing 203 fables in nine books. They are still an integral part of Russian primary and secondary education.

  • His statue, built in 1855, is situated in the Summer Gardens.



Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910)

  • Russian author, essayist and philosopher. He had an abiding

  • interest in children and children's literature. He started a school

  • for peasant children on his family's estate, and later founded

  • another, experimental school with the motto, "Come when you

  • like, leave when you like."

  • Fascinated by the innocence with which the children of

  • his schools told stories, Tolstoy began writing about his own

  • childhood. After completing WAR AND PEACE, he

  • incorporated these stories in a series of easy readers. Known as

  • THE ABC BOOK (Azbuka) and THE NEW ABC BOOK

  • (Novaia Azbuka), these marvelous readers were widely

  • adopted in Russia and were still in use in the Soviet era.

  • The tales and fables in this illustrated volume come mainly

  • from these two well-loved primers. Part 1 consists of stories

  • about Tolstoy's own childhood, all told with beautiful

  • simplicity. Part 2 contains Tolstoy's free adaptations of fables

  • from Aesop and from Hindu tradition. Part 3 is devoted solely

  • to his longest and most famous children's work, the fairy tale

  • "Ivan the Fool and His Two Brothers." Tthese small gems

  • reveal Tolstoy's deep appreciation for and understanding of children's

  • artistic and moral sensibilities.



George Orwell

  • Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950), better known by the pen name George Orwell, was an English author and journalist.

  • Noted as a novelist, as a critic and as a political and cultural commentator, Orwell is among the most widely admired English-language essayists of the 20th century. He is best known for two novels written and published towards the end of his life: Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four.




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