First Aid Chapter 4 Bleeding and Shock


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First Aid


External Bleeding

  • Blood can be seen coming from an open wound



External Bleeding

  • Hemorrhage: large amount of blood in a short time



External Bleeding

  • Types:

  • 3 types.

  • Classified according to source.



External Bleeding

  • Types:

  • Arterial

  • Blood spurts from wound

  • Most serious

  • Blood lost at a fast rate Less likely to clot



External Bleeding



External Bleeding

  • Types:

  • Capillary

  • Blood oozes

  • Usually not serious

  • Can be easily controlled

  • Often will clot by itself



External Bleeding



External Bleeding

  • What to do:

  • Control the Bleeding!



External Bleeding

  • What to do:

  • Put on gloves.

  • Apply pressure to wound with a clean or sterile gauze pad (4x4).



External Bleeding

  • What to do:

  • Elevate above the heart.

  • Reduces blood flow.



External Bleeding

  • What to do:

  • Wrap with kling or kerlex.



External Bleeding



External Bleeding

  • What to do:

  • Check pulse below dsg site



External Bleeding

  • What to do:

  • If bleeding does not stop in 10 minutes:

  • Press harder over a wider area for another 10 minutes.



External Bleeding





External Bleeding

  • What NOT to do:

  • Touch wound with bare hands



External Bleeding

  • What NOT to do:

  • Use direct pressure on an eye wound



External Bleeding

  • What NOT to do:

  • Remove a blood soaked bandage. (instead you should apply another on top.)



External Bleeding



Internal Bleeding

  • Skin is unbroken.

  • Blood is not visible.



Internal Bleeding



Internal Bleeding

  • What to do:

  • Monitor ABCH

  • If vomiting, keep lying on side

  • Treat for shock

  • SMA



Shock

  • Circulatory System Failure.

  • 3 components in the Circulatory System:



Shock



Shock

  • 3 Types:

  • Pump failure

  • Fluid Loss

  • Pipe Failure



Shock

  • Pump failure:

  • Failure of

  • to pump sufficient blood.

  • Ex: heart attack



Shock

  • Fluid Loss:

  • Loss of significant amount of fluid from body. Usually blood



Shock

  • Pipe Failure:

  • Blood vessels enlarge and blood supply is not enough to fill them



Shock

  • What to look for:



Shock

  • What to do:

  • Lay down

  • Cover

  • with blanket

  • Elevate

  • legs

  • (8-12 inches)



Shock

  • What NOT to do:

  • Raise legs if suspect spine injury or stroke



Shock

  • What NOT to do:

  • Place victims with breathing difficulties, heart attack or eye injuries on their backs.

  • (They need head elevated)



Shock

  • What NOT to do:

  • Place 3rd trimester pregnant victim on their back.





Shock

  • What NOT to do:

  • Raise the legs more than 12 inches.



Anaphylaxis



Anaphylaxis

  • Common Causes:

  • Medications

  • Food

  • Insect stings

  • Plant pollen

  • Radiological dyes



Anaphylaxis

  • What to look for:

  • Sneezing, coughing, wheezing

  • SOB

  • Swelling in throat, tongue or mouth

  • Rapid pulse

  • Cyanosis

  • Dizziness

  • Nausea/vomiting



Anaphylaxis

  • What to do:

  • Check ABC

  • SMA

  • Help victim use epinephrine

  • (if they have epipen)



Learning Activities 4

  • 1. Most cases of bleeding require more than direct pressure.



Learning Activities 4

  • 2. Remove an d replace blood soaked dressings.



Learning Activities 4

  • 3. Elevate and use direct pressure to control bleeding.



Learning Activities 4



Learning Activities 4

  • 5. Tourniquets are often needed.



Learning Activities 4

  • Scenerio: 25y/o badly cut on thigh with saw. Blood flowing heavy. Cut is 6-8 inches long. What to do?



Learning Activities 4

  • 1. Most severely injured victims should have their legs raised.



Learning Activities 4

  • 2. Give the victim something to drink.



Learning Activities 4

  • 3. Put blankets under and over the victim.



Learning Activities 4

  • 4. If head injuries,place on side.



Learning Activities 4

  • 5. If breathing difficulties, or chest injury, place on back with legs raised.



Learning Activities 4



Learning Activities 4

  • 1. Anaphylaxis is another form of fainting



Learning Activities 4

  • 2. Anaphylaxis can kill



Learning Activities 4

  • 3. Ask the victim if they have Dr.Rx epinephrine



Learning Activities 4



First Aid Kit




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