Go Bang – The Game Presented to: Pascal Hitzler & Sebastian Bader Presented by: Zulqernain Akhter
GOBANG(Gomoku) Introduction ( History )  Classification of Game Type
 Rules of Game
 How to Play
 Variant (Other RowGames)
 Computer as an opponent
GOBANG(Gomoku) Background Requirements Solving the Games Conclusion  Summary of Results
 Future Research
 New Predictions
 Two New Games (LOA, Amazons)
INTRODUCTION History:  It is very old fiveinarow game kakugo ( year 100 A.D. )
 In Japan they played on a 19x19 Goboard since about 700 A.D.
 when Go was introduced in Japan from China.

 The ancient Chinese game of wutzu as prototype of the FiveInARow games.
 Winner is known as Japanese “Meijin” named in game “Renju”, means “five pearls in a row“.
 In 1931 Nobel prize winner Yasunari Kawabata "The Master of Go“, proposed the change from Goboard from 19x19 to 15x15
 intersections.
 COMPUTER OLYMPAID GAMES in the year 2000 predicted GoMoku as a Solved Game.
RULES OF GAME
HOW TO PLAY Players may decide how many cells of the lattice may be used for the game. For example: A 10x10 lattice (100 cells) or The entire 15x15 lattice (225 cells). Each player in turn moves one stone one vertically, or diagonally.
VARIANT (OTHER ROW GAMES) Row or Mill Games  Morris  Linea  Tabula – MühleTTT Freestyle Gomoku: An overline (six consecutive moves) win. Standard Gomoku: Only five stones as win. TicTacToe(333game): Three consecutive markers on a restricted 3x3 board. Othello 8x8 as variant of Gobang(Gomoku).
COMPUTER AS AN OPPONENT
PROOF NUMBER SEARCH DECISION  BestFirst search method
 Cost function used for decision (which node to expand next) to prove the goal.
If empty point can make x 5 in a line, computer moves and wins. Game over. Else if there was a empty point which can make o 5 in a line, then computer moves the step to the point. Else Calculate all the values of empty points: Plus100 to value of the empty point which can make opponent 4 in a line. Plus 90 to value of the empty point which can make computer 4 in a line. Plus 80 to value of the empty point which can make opponent 3 in a line. Plus 70 to value of the empty point which can make computer 3 in a line. Plus 60 to value of the empty point which can make opponent 2 in a line. Plus 50 to value of the empty point which can make computer 2 in a line.
Three different definitions of a solution Three different definitions of a solution Ultraweakly solved: the game theoretic value of the initial position has been determined. Weakly solved: for the initial position, a strategy has been determined to achieve the gametheoretic values against any opposition. Strongly solved: such a strategy has been determined for all legal moves.
The Category3 games are solved by a combination of expert knowledge, threatspace search, threatsequence search, proofnumber search,as well as alphabeta search. The Category3 games are solved by a combination of expert knowledge, threatspace search, threatsequence search, proofnumber search,as well as alphabeta search. For both freestyle and standard Gomoku, Allis [Ref. VU, NL] established that the game theoretic value is a firstplayer win. Gomoku & Renju have same Statespace and Gametree complexities.
Future Research can be splitted into three areas
Leftovers of current investigations. Selection of fragment, player wants to play in. Question remains: Is a longterm strategy computable by a machine? Weakly solve the remaining variants of Connect Five – different boardsizes, different rules – including:  freestyle and standard Gomoku on smaller boards.
 Gomoku with new Opening Rules, including swapping.
 Renju with opening rules.
4th Computer Renju Tournament (2004) and Solving Problems Competitions. Discover minimaxwin solutions from opening positions. Stronglysolve weaklysolved games.
Computer Olympaid Games in the year 2010 predicted:  Awari, Othello, and Checker(8x8) as Solved Games.
 In Scrabble, computers are believed to be closed to perfect play.
 Lines of Action (LOA)
 Amazons
The Prospects of both are rather different. LOA has complexity similar to Othello. LOA is a game, for which interest only arose recently. At the fifth Computer Olympaid three strong LOA programs participated. Expectation for LOA game not to be solved before 2010. Best Solution is expected in the year 2010.
Amazons is a game with a Complexity comparable to that of Go. Amazons is a game with a Complexity comparable to that of Go. For Competitive programs, simple evaluation functions work quite reasonable. Due to variety of possible moves and branching factor, Amazons will only be solved on relatively small boards, Since a game starts with 8 Amazons and every move exactly fills one empty square, the initial position on m x m boards with odd m favours the First Player. The Second Player has an advantage IF m is even. Conclusion: Many additional games with Mathematical properties recently have come to the attention of Computer Scientists.
Do'stlaringiz bilan baham: 