Her father’s statement, Oh, my daughter, I wish you were a boy!“ showed her that her own father valued men more than women


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Her father’s statement, "Oh, my daughter, I wish you were a boy!“ showed her that her own father valued men more than women.

  • Her father’s statement, "Oh, my daughter, I wish you were a boy!“ showed her that her own father valued men more than women.

  • Encounters with fugitive slaves at the home of her cousin Gerrit Smith

  • Sexual discrimination when young men that she surpassed academically went on to Union College but she could not because they were only accepting men

  • Lucretia Mott’s exclusion from being an abolitionist delegate, even after all of her hard work

  • Over a glass of tea and a discussion with friends, Stanton raised her concerns regarding the extreme limitations on women under America’s new democracy. She found it amazingly ironic that the American Revolution had just been fought seventy years prior in order to gain freedom, yet women were not included in this American freedom. Within two days of this conversation, a meeting had been announced for women to gather and discuss how changes could be made.



Outraged when the World's Anti-Slavery Convention in London, in 1840, denied official standing to women delegates. Stanton formed the first women’s rights meeting in the U.S. in 1848.

  • Outraged when the World's Anti-Slavery Convention in London, in 1840, denied official standing to women delegates. Stanton formed the first women’s rights meeting in the U.S. in 1848.

  • 240 Supporters, including 40 men attended

  • Wrote Declaration of Sentiments

    • “We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal…”
    • Addressed inalienable right to freedom, lack of voice and voting rights, leadership roles, reform of marital and property laws, education and employment discrimination, exclusion from church ministry, a woman’s life belongs to God, different moral standards for men and women, and overall suffrage of women


Abolitionist

  • Abolitionist

  • Temperance Movement

    • Woman’s State Temperance Society (1852-53)
  • Lobbied for Ratification of 14th and 15th Amendment



























JANE ADDAMS



Biography

  • Born in Cedarville, Illinois on September 6, 1860

  • She was the youngest of eight children

  • Her mother died when she was three years old, her father remarrying in 1868

  • She is most well-known for founding the world famous social settlement Hull-House in Chicago, Illinois

  • She also built her reputation as one of America’s most prominent women through her writings and her international efforts for world peace

  • Died in Chicago, Illinois on May 21, 1935



Accomplishments

  • She graduated from the Rockford Female Seminary in Rockford, Illinois in 1882, as valedictorian of her class

  • In 1889 she and Ellen Gates Starr co-founded Hull-House

  • In 1899 she gave a Democracy or Militarism speech in front of the Chicago Liberty Meeting

  • Along with workers, she lobbied the state of Illinois to examine laws governing child labor, the factory inspection system, and the juvenile justice system

  • She began to form the juvenile court system, because she felt it was unfair to try adolescents as adults

  • The first juvenile court opened in 1899 in Chicago

  • By 1920, only three states did not have juvenile courts



Accomplishments

  • In 1905 she was appointed Chicago's Board of Education and chairman of School Management Committee

  • She was elected the first woman at the National Conference of Social Work in 1905

  • In 1906 she wrote Newer Ideals of Peace, which discussed problems with the military among civilians

  • She helped found Chicago School of Civics and Philanthropy in 1908

  • In 1909 she was the first woman president of National Conference of Charities and Corrections



Accomplishments

  • In addition to her involvement in the American Anti-Imperialist League and the American Sociology Association, she was also an influential member of both the American Civil Liberties Union and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

  • In 1911 she helped to establish the National Foundation of Settlements and Neighborhood Centers and became its first president

  • Her first book was released in 1910, followed by two every year

  • Her biggest success in writing came with the release of the book, Twenty Years at Hull House, this became her autobiography



Accomplishments

  • She received the first honorary degree given to a woman by Yale University in 1910

  • In 1910 she was the first female president of the National Conference of Charities and Corrections (NCCC) which she gave 18 papers from 1897-1933

  • In 1911 she was the first vice-president of National American Women suffrage Association

  • She campaigned for Theodore Roosevelt and the Progressive Party and seconded his nomination for President of the Progressive Party

  • In 1913 she was elected second to Thomas Edison in Independent magazine's poll for "Who Was the Most Useful American"



Accomplishments

  • She helped work for legislation to protect immigrants from exploitation, limit the working hours of women, mandate schooling for children, recognize labor unions, and provide for industrial safety

  • She produced eleven books and numerous articles, as well as maintaining an active speaking schedule nationwide and throughout the world

  • In 1915 she organized the Women's Peace Party and the International Congress of women

  • She was elected the first president of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom in 1919

  • In 1931 she was the first American female and only social worker awarded the Nobel Peace Prize



HULL-HOUSE



Hull-House

  • Hull-House was founded in Chicago, Illinois in 1989

  • One of the first settlement houses in the United States

  • Influenced by Toynbee Hall in the east end of London

  • Settlement houses provided welfare for a neighborhood's poor and a center for social reform



Hull-House

  • Its facilities included a night school for adults; kindergarten classes; clubs for older children; a public kitchen; an art gallery; a coffeehouse; a gymnasium; a girls club; a swimming pool; a book bindery; a music school; a drama group; and a library

  • By 1900 Hull-House activities had broadened to include the Jane Club (a cooperative residence for working women), the first Little Theater in America, a Labor Museum and a meeting place for trade union groups

  • At its height, Hull-House was visited each week by around two thousand people



Hull-House

  • Residents of Hull-House included; Jane Addams, Florence Kelley, Dr. Alice Hamilton, Julia Lathrop, Ellen Gates Starr, Sophonisba Breckinridge, and Grace and Edith Abbott

  • The Hull-House residents and their supporters forged a powerful reform movement

  • Among the projects that they launched were the Immigrants' Protective League, The Juvenile Protective Association, the first juvenile court in the nation, and a Juvenile Psychopathic Clinic (later called the Institute for Juvenile Research)

  • Through their efforts, the Illinois legislature enacted protective legislation for women and children and in 1903 passed a strong child labor law and an accompanying compulsory education law



Frances Perkins What a Legacy she left 1880-1965



Didn’t grow up in poverty-stricken home

  • Didn’t grow up in poverty-stricken home

  • Her childhood best friend lived in poverty

  • Perkins wondered why?

  • Her parents answer: idleness and alcohol



Background: young woman

  • Mount Holyoke College for Chemistry

  • history assignment: required her to research factory conditions

  • found horrifying working conditions:

  • -men, women and children working long hours for very little pay

  • -no safety precautions, no insurance policies



More influences

  • Read Jacob Riis’s book, How the Other Half Lives

  • Heard Florence Kelley speak, who would later become her good friend and mentor

  • - her speech “first opened my mind to the necessity for and the possibility of the work which became my vocation”



Francis Perkins as a social worker

  • quits teaching to take up social work

  • -no social work education

  • social work is new profession

  • takes the field by storm



Francis Perkins as a Social Worker

  • Earned masters in Political Science

  • Learned as she worked. Worked a number of social work jobs

  • Busting in New York:

  • -N.Y.C. Consumer’s League executive secretary

  • -investigated over a hundred bakeries, found appalling conditions

  • -brought findings to Board of Health and regulations were changed and enforced

  • -investigated factories fire safety

  • -tried to get policies changed, no one listened, until Triangle Shirtwaist Company burned down

  • -committees finally formed: Committee on Safety in N.Y.C. & N.Y. State Factory Investigating.

  • -Perkins advised them both

  • -laws got passed

  • -From committees and her work, they made N.Y. one of the top states in “improving sanitation, safety, and work conditions”



Administrative jobs

  • Asked by Al Smith, friend and Governor of N.Y. to be part of the Industrial Commission of the State of N.Y.

  • Uproar: wanted a man appointed

  • Smith re-elected 1 term later

  • -Perkins became Commissioner of the State Industrial Board



Winning Favor

  • Roosevelt becomes Governor of N.Y.

  • Appointed also by Roosevelt as Commissioner of the State Industrial Board

  • Told Roosevelt, she would only take the job, if he: “supported her efforts to propose legislation to reduce working hours, improve workmen’s compensation, restrict child labor, abolish sweatshops, and establish more safety codes”



Commissioner of the State Industrial Board

  • created committee to study and lower unemployment

  • studied ways to put people back to work

  • traveled to England to study unemployment insurance

  • pushed legislation: protect women and children workers and lower unemployment



FDR Elected President: Perkins as Madame Secretary

  • Appointed Secretary of Labor on FDR’s cabinet

  • First female cabinet member; this is huge!!!

  • Perkins:

  • -reorganized Bureau of Labor

  • -created U.S. employment service: assisted people looking for jobs



Perkins as Madame Secretary

  • Great Depression hits

  • Perkins creates countless programs for relief efforts:

  • -CCC -FERA -NRA, and many more

  • Steel codes: established good wages, hours and working conditions

  • Made it legal to form unions

  • Division of Labor Standards: cooperated with States in all problems of health, safety, and working conditions



Perkins as Madame Secretary

  • Headed Committee on Economic Security (social security insurance):

  • -researched and created social security insurance for unemployment and old age

  • Congress approved Social Security Act Aug. 10, 1935

  • -covered: unemployed, blind, disabled, elderly, and children of single parents (ADC)

  • BIG VICTORY!!!



Perkins as Madame Secretary

  • Perkins worked to get 2 major bills passed

  • Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act: 8-hour day, minimum wage, no child labor under the age of 16, for all services and goods purchased by Government

  • Wages & Hours Act:

  • -for all companies who conduct business in more than one state

  • -ended employment of children under 16

  • -minimum wage: .40/hour

  • -40 hour work week

  • -time and a half for over time

  • Still have these regulations today!!!



Perkins as Madame Secretary

  • Served 3 full terms with FDR

  • She tried to resign, but he wouldn’t let her go

  • She wrote about FDR, “I am bound to him by ties of affection, common purpose, and joint undertakings.”

  • completely changed social welfare by changing policies and getting laws and regulations passed



Perkins Legacy

  • Perkins accomplished so much for the United States social welfare system

  • many of the programs she started are still around today

  • social welfare in the United States would not be the same without her influence

  • our nation would have completely different ideas about unemployment, child labor, minimum wage, ect…

  • changed social welfare by changing policies and getting laws and regulations passed

  • role model for women

  • left a legacy of ideas that we still uphold today




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