Highly accessible


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Highly accessible

  • Highly accessible









Highly accessible

  • Highly accessible

  • CBD Retail services

      • Retailers with a high threshold/range
        • Infrequent patrons (designers, boutiques, Apple, theatre)
        • Department stores
          • 1960s/1970s stores shift to malls
        • Now attract tourist shoppers (Michigan Ave.)
      • Retailers serving downtown workers
        • Why are business services clustered in the CBD
          • want proximity to other professionals, government offices
          • accessible to all types of workers (secretary and the CEO)
          • Consequently, business support services as well.
        • Retail caters to the tastes of downtown workers


High land costs leads to what?

  • High land costs leads to what?

    • Intensive land use
      • Underground areas
      • Skyscrapers
        • Chicago (Home Insurance Building) 1880s
          • Iron frame and elevators
          • Give cities distinctive character
        • “Vertical geography” nature of use changes as you go up


Chicago School(s) of Architecture

  • Chicago School(s) of Architecture

    • 1st : walls hang on iron frame = skyscrapers
    • 2nd : glass and iron skyscraper, form follows function
        • aka “the International School”


Activities excluded from the CBD

    • Activities excluded from the CBD
      • Lack of industry in the CBD
        • Once located near water access and piers
          • Waterfronts now used for recreation, tourism, retail


Lack of residents in the CBD

      • Lack of residents in the CBD
        • 1800s = population centers (mansions, tenements)
        • 20th century = retail wins bid-rent, suburbanization, invasion/succession result in less people living in urban centers
        • Now: population returning (lofts, empty-nesters, yuppies, hipsters, proximity to nightlife culture, don’t care about schools, etc.)




Less dominated by commercial considerations.

      • Less dominated by commercial considerations.
        • More public use and higher population
        • restrictions to maintain character and attract tourists
        • Older buildings renovated not demolished


Chicago School(s) of Architecture

  • Chicago School(s) of Architecture

  • City Beautiful movement

    • Parks, monuments, orderly street plan (Daniel Burnham)
    • The National Mall in Washington, DC




Chicago School(s) of Architecture

  • Chicago School(s) of Architecture

  • City Beautiful movement

    • Parks, monuments, orderly street plan (Daniel Burnham)
    • Beaux Arts style (you don’t need to know all the details but should recognize it)
      • "noble spaces"—grand entrances/staircases—not utilitarian ones
      • Arched windows and pedimented doors
      • Statuary, sculpture, murals, mosaics, and other artwork, all coordinated in theme to assert the identity of the building
      • Classical details: balustrades, pilasters, garlands
      • Subtle polychromy
    • Nice to look at AND creates civic pride and moral virtues






Chicago School(s) of Architecture

  • Chicago School(s) of Architecture

  • City Beautiful movement

  • Postmodern architecture

    • Wide range of styles, challenges what’s “accepted”
    • Diverse aesthetics, anything goes, unique forms
    • More people-friendly = “cloud gate” aka “the bean”





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