Historical Connections with: Holland, Italy, France, Hungary and Turkey Morcan Mihaela


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Historical Connections with: Holland, Italy, France, Hungary and Turkey

  • Morcan Mihaela




Turkey: events

  • Lifestyle Events and Festivals

  • Lifestyle events in Turkey are a quirky mix. From international fairs to Turkish traditional festivals, Turkey hosts many events with global reach. Looking for new market trends or buying luxury products, unique and exclusive, the lifestyle Turkish events has it all. There are remarkable events stored for all ages and groups, leisure and business sectors. From home decor to fashion, sports to education, food to entertainment, lifestyle events in Turkey deliver an exceptional experience for the visitors.



The influences of Turkey in Romania

  • Turkish political influence in Romania from the 16th Century until 1881 is well documented. Historical records also provide numerous references to Turkish music in Romania which together with certain survivals in the form of instruments and musical forms serve to delineate the broader outlines of the potential area of influence of Turkish music on certain Romanian musical practices.



Historical connections between Romania and Holland: historical personalities.

  • William I, Prince of Orange (24 April 1533 – 10 July 1584), also widely known as William the Silent (Dutch: Willem de Zwijger), or simply William of Orange (Dutch: Willem van Oranje), was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish that set off the Eighty Years' War and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1648. He was born in the House of Nassau as Count of Nassau-Dillenburg. He became Prince of Orange in 1544 and is thereby the founder of the branch House of Orange-Nassau and the ancestor of the monarchy of the Netherlands.

  • A wealthy nobleman, William originally served the Habsburgs as a member of the court of Margaret of Parma, governor of the Spanish Netherlands. Unhappy with the centralisation of political power away from the local estates and with the Spanish persecution of Dutch Protestants, William joined the Dutch uprising and turned against his former masters. The most influential and politically capable of the rebels, he led the Dutch to several successes in the fight against the Spanish. Declared an outlaw by the Spanish king in 1580, he was assassinated by Balthasar Gérard (also written as "Gerardts") in Delft four years later (1584).



Holland : events

  • Amsterdam light festival



Historical connections between Romania and Hungary: historical personalities.

  • Stefan the Great (1433 – July 2, 1504 )

  • was Prince of Moldavia between 1457 and 1504 and the most prominent representative of the House of Mușat.

  • Stephen achieved fame in Europe for his long resistance against the Ottomans. He was victorious in 46 of his 48 battles, and was one of the first to gain a decisive victory over the Ottomans at the Battle of Vaslui, after which Pope Sixtus IV deemed him (true Champion of Christian Faith) .

  • Vlad III Dracula was Stephen’s the Great first cousin and he helped him to win many battles in those times.

  • Stefan the Great was canonized by Romanian Orthodox Church and was buried at Putna Monastery.



Hungary: events

  • Budapest Spring Festival

  • Pulling together the best in classical music, opera, jazz and folk music, this annual festival is the largest cultural event in Hungary. A multitude of venues throughout the city welcome both, Hungarian and international performers. Budapest celebrates its 34th Spring Festival.



The Influence of Trade Unions on Pension Reform in Romania and Hungary: The Role of Ideas, Interests and Institutions in Policy-Making . Although both Romania and Hungary have inherited pay-as-you-go defined benefit pensions systems, they have both moved towards a three-pillar pensions system, in which PAYG-DB becomes just one of three pillars together with the mandatory and the voluntary private pension funds. Trade unions have had an important influence on pension reform in both countries. The analysis of pension reform in Hungary and Romania brings evidence that trade unions’ influence on policy-making is not uniform, but it is shaped by the international policy discourse, by the institutional setting, by their relationship with other policy actors, by their organisational culture and even material inheritance.

  • The Influence of Trade Unions on Pension Reform in Romania and Hungary: The Role of Ideas, Interests and Institutions in Policy-Making . Although both Romania and Hungary have inherited pay-as-you-go defined benefit pensions systems, they have both moved towards a three-pillar pensions system, in which PAYG-DB becomes just one of three pillars together with the mandatory and the voluntary private pension funds. Trade unions have had an important influence on pension reform in both countries. The analysis of pension reform in Hungary and Romania brings evidence that trade unions’ influence on policy-making is not uniform, but it is shaped by the international policy discourse, by the institutional setting, by their relationship with other policy actors, by their organisational culture and even material inheritance.



Historical connections between Romania and France: historical personalities.

  • Alexandru Ioan Cuza , or Alexandru Ioan I, also anglicised as Alexander John Cuza; 20 March 1820 – 15 May 1873 was Prince of Moldavia, Prince of Wallachia, and later Domnitor (ruler) of the Romanian Principalities. He was a prominent figure of the Revolution of 1848 in Moldavia. He initiated a series of reforms that contributed to the modernization of Romanian society and of state structures. In 1848, known as the year of European revolutions, Moldavia and Wallachia fell into revolt. The Moldavian unrest was quickly suppressed, but in Wallachia the revolutionaries took power and governed during the summer (see 1848 Wallachian revolution). Young Cuza played a prominent enough part so as to establish his liberal credentials during the Moldavian episode and to be shipped to Vienna as a prisoner, where he made his escape with British support.



France: events

  • Tour de France - This world famous annual cycling race is the biggest and most prestigious event on the annual cycling calendar, attracting entrants from around the world. It usually takes place in July and the various stages in the 3 week long race, cover virtually the whole of France. The grand finish on the Champs-Elysees is a spectacular event attracting massive crowds of spectators.



The influences of France in Romania

  • Romania's history has been full of rebounds: the culturally productive epochs were those of stability, when the people proved quite an impressive resourcefulness in making up for less propitious periods and were able to rejoin the mainstream of European culture. This stands true for the years after the Phanariote-Ottoman period, at the beginning of the 19th century, when Romanians had a favourable historical context and Romania started to become westernized, mainly with French influences, which they pursued steadily and at a very fast pace. From the end of the 18th century, the sons of the upper classes started having their education in Paris, and French became (and was until the communist years) a genuine second language of culture for Romanians. The modeling role of France especially in the fields of political ideas, administration and law, as well as in literature was paralleled, from the mid-19th century down to World War I, by German culture as well, which also triggered constant relationships with the German world not only at a cultural level but in daily life as well. With the arrival of Soviet Communism in the area, Romania quickly adopted many Slavic influences, and Russian was also a widely taught in the country during Romania's "socialist" years.



Historical connections between Romania and Italy: historical personalities.

  • Camillo Paolo Filippo Giulio Benso, Count of Cavour, of Isolabella and of Leri (August 10, 1810 – June 6, 1861), generally known as Cavour was a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification. He was the founder of the original Liberal Party and Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia, a position he maintained (except for a six-month resignation) throughout the Second Italian War of Independence and Garibaldi's campaigns to unite Italy. After the declaration of a united Kingdom of Italy, Cavour took office as Italy's first Prime Minister; he died after only three months in office, and thus did not live to see Venetia or Rome as part of the new Italian nation.



Italy: events

  • Opera Season in Verona

  • Seeing the opera in Verona is one of Italy's great travel experiences. Every summer the city's Roman Arena is taken over by grandiose opera productions on an epic scale. Many music-loving travellers visit Verona just to attend the opera; the town's charms are an attractive extra. If you are staying in or around Verona during the summer, it is well worth planning an evening at the opera to appreciate the music, the spectacle, and the experience of spectating at an event in this ancient Roman venue.



The Slavic influence on Romanian is noticeable on all linguistic levels: lexis, phonetics, morphology and syntax. This situation is due to the migration of Slavic tribes who traversed the territory of present-day Romania during the sixth century AD, corresponding with the formative stage of Eastern Romance.

  • The Slavic influence on Romanian is noticeable on all linguistic levels: lexis, phonetics, morphology and syntax. This situation is due to the migration of Slavic tribes who traversed the territory of present-day Romania during the sixth century AD, corresponding with the formative stage of Eastern Romance.



Events in Romania

  • Romania's Folk Art Festival — Initiation in folk art creation (pottery molding, textile embroidering, woodcarving and more) offered, for free, by preeminent folk artists to those interested in traditional crafts.

  • The Traditional Crafts Fair — Crafts enthusiasts from all over Romania gather at the Village Museum in Bucharest to offer free demonstrations of traditional woodcarving, rug weaving, textile weaving and embrodering, pottery molding, glass blowing, egg painting and more.

  • Halloween in Transylvania — Tours, shows and celebrations following the footsteps of Bram Stoker's novel character, Count Dracula.

  • Christmas Markets

  • Of all the events enjoyed during the year, folk festivals are without a doubt the most spectacular. While some festival dates remain fixed, others change year by year so it's wise to check before your trip.




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