How are rocks formed?


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SEPT. 26

  • SEPT. 26


 

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How are rocks formed?

  • How are rocks formed?



Let’s See What You Know!!!!!

  • Let’s See What You Know!!!!!



Boundaries, Stresses, and Faults

  • Boundaries, Stresses, and Faults



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  • *



















Define the following:

  • Define the following:

  • Weathering

  • Erosion

  • Deposition



What processes form igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rock?

  • What processes form igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rock?



Name the 3 rock types and how they form.

  • Name the 3 rock types and how they form.



Explain how an igneous rock can be turned into a metamorphic rock, then a sedimentary rock and back to an igneous rock over time.

  • Explain how an igneous rock can be turned into a metamorphic rock, then a sedimentary rock and back to an igneous rock over time.



Go to http://dms.dcsdschools.org/home

  • Go to http://dms.dcsdschools.org/home

  • Click on “Departments” in the top purple tab

  • On the dropdown menu, go to Science

  • Click on Nicole Grant -8th Grade Science

  • Click on “Grant’s Lessons” on the right hand side

  • Click on “Rock Cycle” for an animation



8.E.5A.2 Use the rock cycle model to describe the relationship between the processes and forces that create igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.

  • 8.E.5A.2 Use the rock cycle model to describe the relationship between the processes and forces that create igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.



STUDENTS SHOULD BE ABLE TO: use the rock cycle model to describe how different processes create different rock types.

  • STUDENTS SHOULD BE ABLE TO: use the rock cycle model to describe how different processes create different rock types.







How much time does it take to form a rock?

  • How much time does it take to form a rock?

    • If you squeeze and heat a rock for a few million years, it can turn into a new kind of rock.


There are three large classifications of rocks – igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary. Each type of rock is formed differently and can change from one type to another over time. The way rocks are formed determines how we classify them.

  • There are three large classifications of rocks – igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary. Each type of rock is formed differently and can change from one type to another over time. The way rocks are formed determines how we classify them.



IGNEOUS EXAMPLES: Granite, Obsidian, Pumice

  • IGNEOUS EXAMPLES: Granite, Obsidian, Pumice

  • SEDIMENTARY EXAMPLES: Sandstone, Limestone, Shale

  • METAMORPHIC EXAMPLES: Slate, Marble, Gneiss









  • Igneous – means “fire formed.”

  • IGNEOUS ROCKS: Forms when molten rock (magma or lava) cools and hardens

  • . (MOLTEN ROCK)



When lava is cooled it forms a rock.

  • When lava is cooled it forms a rock.

  • When magma cools within the Earth, it also forms rocks.

  • What’s the difference between lava and magma?



Extrusive rock – Igneous rock formed from lava that erupted from a volcano. (exterior – exit)

  • Extrusive rock – Igneous rock formed from lava that erupted from a volcano. (exterior – exit)

    • Examples: Basalt, Obsidian
  • Extrusive: Small crystals – Cools Quickly



  • Intrusive rock – Igneous rock that formed when magma hardened beneath or inside a volcano. (interior – inside)

  • Rocks cool slowly

    • Example: Granite
    • Intrusive: Large crystals – Cools Slowly




Igneous Rocks goes mainly through processes:

  • Igneous Rocks goes mainly through processes:

  • 1. Crystallization

  • 2. Melting

  • 3. Cooling





From where do igneous rocks form?

  • From where do igneous rocks form?

  • The only way igneous rocks can form is from the cooling of what?

  • What are the two types of igneous rocks? Explain the difference between them.

  • What are the 3 processes igneous rocks go through?

  • Explain how large and small crystals form in igneous rocks.





Forms near bodies of water or where bodies of water use to be

  • Forms near bodies of water or where bodies of water use to be

  • Sedimentary rocks are made up of sediments.



Sediment are small, solid pieces of rock, mineral grains, or shell fragments

  • Sediment are small, solid pieces of rock, mineral grains, or shell fragments

  • Sediments are formed through the processes of weathering and erosion of rocks exposed at Earth’s surface.



Sedimentary rocks can also form from the chemical depositing of materials that were once dissolved in water. (DEPOSITION)

  • Sedimentary rocks can also form from the chemical depositing of materials that were once dissolved in water. (DEPOSITION)

  • THEREFORE, SEDIMENTARY ROCKS Forms from the compaction and/or cementation of rock pieces, mineral grains, or shell fragments called sediments.





1. Compaction - process that presses sediments together.

  • 1. Compaction - process that presses sediments together.

    • At first, the sediment fits together loosely. Over long periods of time the layers build up.
    • The layers are heavy and press down on each other.
  • 2. Cementation – process in which dissolved minerals crystallize and glue sediment together.



Sedimentary rocks usually have fossils within them.

  • Sedimentary rocks usually have fossils within them.

  • Sedimentary rocks are also known for having layers.









What does sedimentary rocks from?

  • What does sedimentary rocks from?

  • What are the two processes that sedimentary rocks go through?

  • How do sedimentary rocks form?

  • What are sediments?

  • How do sediments form?





Metamorphic rocks form underneath the Earth’s Surface.

  • Metamorphic rocks form underneath the Earth’s Surface.

  • Forms when rocks are changed into different kinds of rocks by great heat and/or pressure

  • Metamorphic rocks are heated, squeezed, folded, or chemically changed by contact with hot fluids. (THIS ROCK GOES THROUGH CHEMICAL CHANGES)



When heat and pressure reach the rock’s melting point, it melts into magma.

  • When heat and pressure reach the rock’s melting point, it melts into magma.



Metamorphic goes through 2 processes:

  • Metamorphic goes through 2 processes:

  • 1. Heat

  • 2. Pressure



Foliated RocksHave obvious layers.

  • Foliated RocksHave obvious layers.

  • Non-Foliated RocksHave no visible layers.









What Process Do All Rocks Go Through????

  • What Process Do All Rocks Go Through????



Weathering, Erosion, & DEPOSITON

  • Weathering, Erosion, & DEPOSITON



Types of Rocks

  • Types of Rocks



1. Forms underneath the Earth’s surface

  • 1. Forms underneath the Earth’s surface

  • 2. Forms around volcanoes

  • 3. Forms near bodies of water or where bodies of water use to be

  • 4. Have fossils within them

  • 5. Goes through the process of cooling, melting, and crystallization

  • 6. Goes through the process of heat and pressure

  • 7. Goes through the process of compaction and cementation

  • 8. Consist of Intrusive and extrusive rocks

  • 9. Can change into other rocks, can be foliated and go through chemical changes

  • 10. Can go through the process weathering and erosion



The rock cycle is an ongoing process. The sample diagram illustrates the series of natural processes that can change rocks from one kind to another:

  • The rock cycle is an ongoing process. The sample diagram illustrates the series of natural processes that can change rocks from one kind to another:

  • The rock cycle is an example of how Earth recycles itself.











Basalt Gneiss

  • Basalt Gneiss

  • Slate

  • Granite

  • Limestone

  • Scoria

  • Marble



What are the processes that each rock goes through? What process do all rocks go through?

  • What are the processes that each rock goes through? What process do all rocks go through?



How would you explain how the three types of rocks form and where do they form?

  • How would you explain how the three types of rocks form and where do they form?




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