How do those beliefs support effective discipline strategies & practices?


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The purpose of this study is to explain the contributing factors to disproportionately high suspension rates of black males in schools by examining classroom teachers with effective, low-referring discipline practices.

  • The purpose of this study is to explain the contributing factors to disproportionately high suspension rates of black males in schools by examining classroom teachers with effective, low-referring discipline practices.

  • What are the features of discipline strategies and practices that mitigate disruption and office discipline referrals among black male students?

  • Are there beliefs and assumptions (personal values) that effective teachers have about their students and their behavior that challenges race neutrality or the colorblind myth?

    • How do those beliefs support effective discipline strategies & practices?




















        • Macheo Payne, Ed.D., MSW
        • macheop@gmail.com
        • 510-846-5402
        • THE DATA: http://ocrdata.ed.gov/




Purpose and Intent

  • Purpose and Intent

  • Statement of Problem

  • Theoretical Frame: CRT In Education

  • Review of Research: Key Findings

  • Gaps or Tensions

  • Research Questions

  • Proposed Research Design



The purpose of this study is to address disproportionately high rates of suspension of black males in schools by examining the classroom practices of effective (low referring) teachers.

  • The purpose of this study is to address disproportionately high rates of suspension of black males in schools by examining the classroom practices of effective (low referring) teachers.

  • The intent of this study is to move from analyzing the problem to identifying solutions to the black male discipline gap by focusing on the teacher’s role in the reduction of office discipline referrals, a starting point for suspensions.



Black male students are suspended from school at a rate 2 to 3 times more than White male students nationwide (UCLA Civil Rights Project, 2010).

  • Black male students are suspended from school at a rate 2 to 3 times more than White male students nationwide (UCLA Civil Rights Project, 2010).

  • The discipline gap is linked to low academic achievement, low graduation rates, high dropout/pushout rates and the school-to-prison pipeline (Noguera, 2003; CDF, 2008, Nicholson-Crotty, 2009).

  • This trend has existed for 35 years and is getting worse (CDF, 1975;Skiba, Michael, Nardo & Peterson, 2002).

  • This is a race-based issue, an equity issue, and a civil rights issue (UCLA Civil Rights Project, 2010).

  • This suspension disparity begins with teacher out-of-class referrals (Furgeson, 2010).



There is a wide body of evidence examining this problem but recent data shows the problem growing (US Dept. of Ed, 2012).

  • There is a wide body of evidence examining this problem but recent data shows the problem growing (US Dept. of Ed, 2012).

  • Current intervention policies are race-neutral and aimed at student behavior when they should be race-based and aimed at the institution (Payne, 2010).



Race based privilege & bias is normal (commonplace) and still ever present in American schools. By default, the laws, policies, and practices continue to benefit and privilege “whiteness.”

  • Race based privilege & bias is normal (commonplace) and still ever present in American schools. By default, the laws, policies, and practices continue to benefit and privilege “whiteness.”

  • With roots in critical theory, legal studies, feminist studies, CRT looks beyond the symptoms of a broken Educational system and points to the very roots of injustice: systemic injustice based on white supremacist ideology in America.







Research acknowledges race as a descriptor but lacks an analytical treatment of race and race bias as a fundamental feature of school suspension by default

  • Research acknowledges race as a descriptor but lacks an analytical treatment of race and race bias as a fundamental feature of school suspension by default

  • There are no studies that use CRT to explain disproportionate discipline for black males

  • Studies that offer interventions or solutions, fail to offer race-based strategies aimed at the institution. Instead they are race-neutral and take the ‘restrictive view’ approach

  • There are no studies that examine effective solutions in the classroom, regarding disproportionate suspension of black males



What are the features of effective discipline strategies and practices that mitigate disruption and office discipline referrals among black male students?

  • What are the features of effective discipline strategies and practices that mitigate disruption and office discipline referrals among black male students?

  • What are common beliefs and assumptions (personal values) about racial bias that effective teachers have about their black male students and their behavior?

      • How do those beliefs support effective discipline strategies & practices?


METHODOLOGY- Multiple case study design

  • METHODOLOGY- Multiple case study design

  • SELECTION: Identify 5 low referring teachers through principal & parent/community nomination

  • DATA COLLECTION: Observe classroom discipline practices, follow-up interviews of teachers

  • ANALYSIS: Identify effective practices for minimizing office discipline referrals

  • ANALYSIS: Identify effective practices & underlying values and beliefs that inform effective practices

  • REPRESENTATION: Cross study representation of common themes




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