How does religion shape art?


Download 449 b.
Sana24.05.2018
Hajmi449 b.


How does religion shape art?

  • How does religion shape art?

  • Homework: Review psychology review sheet – write 3 clarifying questions




Islamic civilization is based upon a monotheist religion

  • Islamic civilization is based upon a monotheist religion

  • The expansion of this culture led to the creation of Muslim civilization

  • In Spain they created Al-Andalus



Iconoclast art: it is forbidden to depict their God’s image

  • Iconoclast art: it is forbidden to depict their God’s image

  • Stylised: it is ant naturalistic and full of geometry

  • Mutability: show that things are ephemeral, using poor materials and repetitions to create light effects

  • Decorative:

    • Vegetal (Ataurique)
    • Geometric (lace)
    • Arabesc (flowers and calligraphy)


The main buildings of Islamic architecture are:

  • The main buildings of Islamic architecture are:

    • Religious:
      • Mosque
      • Madrasa
      • Mausoleum
    • Civil:
      • Palace
      • Fortress
      • Engineering works
      • Carevanserai


It is a synthesis of:

  • It is a synthesis of:

    • Byzantium
    • Copte
    • Christian
  • Buildings are not high, horizontality is underlined

  • The main building is the mosque

  • Materials are poor in general: brick, tiles, wax

  • Shapes tend to be cubic

  • Hemispheric domes

  • High towers (minaret)



Supports:

  • Supports:

    • Column and pillar
    • Slim and stylised
    • Reused capitals
    • Cimacio over the capital
  • Covers: great variety:

    • Flat covers
    • Vaults and domes:
      • Groin vaults
      • Pierced
      • Crafted
      • Muqarna


Arches:

  • Arches:

    • Types:
      • Horse-shoe
      • Polylobulate
      • Pointed horse-shoe
    • Combination of colours
  • Very decorative

  • Walls covered with tiles



It is the centre of social life

  • It is the centre of social life

  • It consists of a squared area covered by a dome

  • It is organised around a courtyard

  • In one side there is a tower to call for the pray: minaret

  • The main wall is directed to Mecca

  • Its origin is the Mahomet’s house in Medina





Structure:

  • Structure:

  • Courtyard or Shan, uncovered

  • Qibla: wall directed to Mecca

  • Mirhab: niche open in the quibla and holiest place of the mosque

  • Maqsura: area in front of the Mirhab reserved for the caliph

  • Mimbar or pulpit

  • Haram or pray rooms

  • Minaret: tower to call for the pray





Typology:



Building which functions as a teaching institution primarily of Islamic sciences

  • Building which functions as a teaching institution primarily of Islamic sciences

  • They are linked to a mosque

  • Inside there were

    • Classrooms
    • Students’ rooms


Tombs of important people.

  • Tombs of important people.

  • There were big constructions



They were royal residences

  • They were royal residences

  • They consisted of a lot of rooms

  • Gardens, courtyards and fountains were common.



These buildings were prepared for defence

  • These buildings were prepared for defence

  • They were surrounded by walls and built in high places, easy to defend.



Roadside building that provides shelter to travellers and their animals

  • Roadside building that provides shelter to travellers and their animals

  • They were located in the middle of caravan routes

  • They had a first floor with

  • a courtyard and spaces

  • for animals and products

  • The top floor was for travellers.



It was common the use of ogee arches

  • It was common the use of ogee arches

  • Sometimes they are covered.





Three periods can be distinguished:

  • Three periods can be distinguished:

    • Califal
    • Almohade
    • Nazari










The internal space gives a uniformity impression due to the identical naves.

  • The internal space gives a uniformity impression due to the identical naves.

  • It is a non-differenced

  • space where

  • horizontality is

  • dominant.



Columns have shaft without lines

  • Columns have shaft without lines

  • Capitals are corinthian but very simplified

  • Over them appears the cimacio to make them higher

  • Arches combine two colours

  • There are horse-shoe arches in the first line and high semicircular arches on the second line.





The most luxurious part is the mihrab

  • The most luxurious part is the mihrab

  • The interior is covered in wax

  • Every type of decoration is used.



The mihrab is covered by a nerved dome

  • The mihrab is covered by a nerved dome

  • It is built on an octagonal basis

  • The nerves are not crossed in the centre, leaving an open space, it is a gallonate dome

  • It is a symbol of divine wisdom



The maqsura is an space in front of the mihrab that was reserved for the caliph

  • The maqsura is an space in front of the mihrab that was reserved for the caliph

  • It was covered by four nerved domes, the same as in the mihrab.

  • It was limited by polylobulate arches, aligned in two one over the other.

  • Over there they are horse-shoe arches with small decorative columns.



Madinat al Zahra

  • Madinat al Zahra



Aljaferia palace was built during the Taifa time (11th century)

  • Aljaferia palace was built during the Taifa time (11th century)

  • It is defensive.



  • During the Almohad invasion towers were frequent.

  • They have an obvious defensive character.



The buildings have different sections

  • The buildings have different sections

  • All of them are quite closed on the basis, to have more windows in higher positions

  • They can have crenelations.



The last period of Islamic Art in Spain is the Nazari.

  • The last period of Islamic Art in Spain is the Nazari.

  • The main building is the Alhambra palace, in Grenade

  • It is a big complex built in the 14th century.





  • The alcazaba is the defensive part

  • In this area stone is dominant in the walls

  • The rest of the construction is made of brick.



The centre of the building is the Comares palace, to which the main rooms open

  • The centre of the building is the Comares palace, to which the main rooms open

  • This area is built around the Arrayans courtyard

  • The inside is delicately decorated.



Nazari columns are made in white marble

  • Nazari columns are made in white marble

  • They are crowned by different kind of capitals

  • They are characterised by being delicate and fragile.



Materials are poor

  • Materials are poor

  • Brick is covered with wax

  • Marble is reserved for columns and floors

  • Wood is used in some decorations and mainly in the ceilings

  • The effect is of richness and sumptuous



Nature is essential

  • Nature is essential

  • Everything is though to delight the senses:

  • When water is calmed it acts as a mirror, duplicating architectures.



The Lions’ Courtyard is surrounded by elegant columns

  • The Lions’ Courtyard is surrounded by elegant columns

  • It is the space between the external light and the internal shade and freshness

  • It symbolised paradise with the zodiacal lions and the four rivers that fertilize the world



Some stances are covered by muqarna domes (The Two Sisters’ room)

  • Some stances are covered by muqarna domes (The Two Sisters’ room)

  • This vault symbolises the cosmos, moving around and full of divine light

  • It suggest the shape of a star.



Decoration is sumptuous and delicate

  • Decoration is sumptuous and delicate

  • It uses atauriqe, epigraphy, lace and sebka or a net of rhombus made of mixed lobulate arches combined.

  • Materials are characterised by

    • Colour
    • Light reflection


Muqarnas appear in arches



In ceilings flat cover dominates

  • In ceilings flat cover dominates

  • Some rooms are covered by fully decorated domes

  • In the rest of the cases wood dominate.



There are summer palaces, as El Partal

  • There are summer palaces, as El Partal

  • As important as the palace itself is the garden and the

  • pound in front

  • The building is simple, with great arches flanked by alfiz.






Do'stlaringiz bilan baham:


Ma'lumotlar bazasi mualliflik huquqi bilan himoyalangan ©fayllar.org 2017
ma'muriyatiga murojaat qiling