Ices cooperative research report rapport des recherches collectives

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Proceedings of the Baltic <a href="/impacts-of-fishing-on-marine-benthic-habitats.html">Marine Science Conference</a>

ICES COOPERATIVE RESEARCH REPORT 
RAPPORT DES RECHERCHES COLLECTIVES 
NO. 257 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Proceedings of the Baltic Marine 
Science Conference 
 
Rønne, Denmark, 22–26 October 1996 
 
Edited by 
 
Hans Dahlin 
SMHI 
SE-601 76 Norrköping 
Sweden 
 
Bernt Dybern 
Institute of Marine Research 
Box 4 
SE-453 21 Lysekil 
Sweden 
 
and 
 
Siân Petersson 
EuroGOOS Office 
SMHI 
SE-601 76 Norrköping 
Sweden 
 
 
 
 
 
International Council for the Exploration of the Sea 
Conseil International pour l’Exploration de la Mer 
Palægade 2–4
DK-1261 Copenhagen K
Denmark 
April 2003 
 
 

Final manuscript received from the Editors in April 2003. 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Recommended format for purposes of citation: 
 
 
ICES. 2003. Proceedings of the Baltic Marine Conference, Rønne, Denmark, 22–26 October 1996. ICES Cooperative 
Research Report No. 257. 334  pp. 
 
For permission to reproduce material from this ICES Cooperative Research Reportapply to the General Secretary. 
ISSN 1017–6195 

ICES Cooperative Research Report, No. 257 
 
 
Proceedings of the Baltic Marine Science Conference 
 
 
 
 
Contents
 
 
H. Dooley  Foreword 
vii 
B. Dybern and H. Dahlin Preface 
viii 
  Statement from the Baltic Marine Science Conference, Rønne, 
Denmark, 22–26 October 1996 

J. Šyvokiene and L. Mickeniene  Micro-organisms in the digestive tracts of Baltic fish 

D. Nehring and G. Nausch  Fertiliser consumption in the catchment area and eutrophication of the 
Baltic Sea 

M. Nausch and E. Kerstan  Chemical and biological interactions in mixing gradients in the 
Pomeranian Bight 
13 
V. Jermakovs and H. Cederwall  Distribution  and morphological parameters of the polychaete 
Marenzelleria viridis population in the Gulf of Riga 
21 
H. Schubert, L. Schlüter, and  
P. Feuerpfeil 
The ecophysiological consequences of the underwater light climate in a 
shallow Baltic estuary 
29 
G. Sapota   Chlorinated hydrocarbons in marine biota and sediments from the Gulf 
of Gdańsk 
38 
B. Skwarzec and P. Stepnowski  Polonium, uranium, and plutonium in the Southern Baltic ecosystem 
44 
J. Urbanski  The application of dynamic segmentation in coastal vulnerability 
mapping 
49 
T. Szczepanska and K. Sokolowski  Variability of the chemical composition of interstitial water of surficial 
bottom sediments in the region of the Gdańsk Bay and Puck Bay 
56 
D. Maksymowska, H. Jankowska, 
and B. Oldakowski 
Geological conditions in the artificial pits of the western part of the 
Gulf of Gdańsk 
66 
J. B. Jensen, A. Kuijpers, and W. 
Lemke 
Seabed sediments and current-induced bedforms in the Fehmarn Belt–
Arkona Basin  
78 
R. Bojanowski, Z. Radecki, S. 
Uscinowicz, and D. Knapinska-Skiba 
Penetration of Caesium-137 into sandy sediments of the Baltic Sea 
85 
D. Dannenberger and A. Lerz  Organochlorines in surface sediments and cores of the Western Baltic 
and inner coastal waters of Mecklenburg–West Pomerania 
90 
N. Kuten, B. Klagish, and 
Y.Goldfarb 
Lithology and stratigraphy of glacial deposits in the Sambian–Kura 
area of the Baltic Sea 
96 
K. Bradtke and A. Latala  Particle size distributions in the Gulf of Gdańsk 107 
B. Larsen, M. Pertillä, and Research 
Group 
Sediment monitoring in the Baltic Sea: results of the Baltic Sea 
Sediment Baseline Study 
114 
E. Kaniewski, Z. Otremba, A. 
Stelmaszewski, and T. Szczepanska 
Oil pollution in the sediments of the Southern Baltic 
118 
 iii

ICES Cooperative Research Report, No. 257 
 
 
G. Witt, K. W. Schramm, and B. 
Henkelmann 
Occurrence and distribution of organic micropollutants in sediments of 
the Western Baltic Sea and the inner coastal waters of Mecklenburg–
Vorpommern (Germany) 
121 
C. Christiansen, H. Kunzerdorf, K.-
C. Emeis, R. Endler, U. Struck, D. 
Benesch, T. Neumann, and V. 
Sivkov 
Sedimentation rate variabilities in the eastern Gotland Basin 
126 
R. Endler, K.-C. Emeis, and T. 
Förster 
Acoustic images of Gotland Basin sediments 
134 
P. Alenius  Water exchange, nutrients, hydrography, and database of the Gulf of 
Riga 
138 
EU project contract: MAS3–CT96–
0058 
BASYS: Baltic Sea System Study 
142 
M. Chomka and T. Petelski  The sea aerosol emission from the coastal zone 
145 
B. V. Chubarenko and I. P. 
Chubarenko 
The transport of Baltic water along the deep channel in the Gulf of 
Kaliningrad and its influence on fields of salinity and suspended solids 
151 
S. Fonselius  Baltic research in a wider perspective 
157 
M. Graeve and D. Wodarg  Seasonal and spatial variability of major organic contaminants in 
solution and suspension of the Pomeranian Bight 
168 
E. Hagen, K.-C. Emeis, and C. 
Zülicke 
GOBEX: Gotland Basin Experiment–a European research initiative 
174 
F. Jakobsen, N. H. Petersen, H. M. 
Petersen, J. S. Møller, T. Schmidt, 
and T. Seifert 
Hydrographic investigations in the Fehmarn Belt in connection with 
the planning of the Fehmarn Belt link 
179 
H. R. Jensen and J. S. Møller  Nested 3D model of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea 
190 
S. Krueger, W. Roeder, and K.-P. 
Wlost 
Baltic Stations Darss Sill and Oder Bank 
198 
H.-V. Lass, T. Schmidt, and T. 
Seifert 
Hiddensee upwelling field measurements and modelling results 
204 
J. Mattson  Geostrophic flow resistance in the Öresund 
209 
K. Nagel  Distribution patterns of nutrients discharged by the river Odra into the 
Pomeranian Bight 
214 
Z. Otremba, A. Stelmaszewski, K. 
Kruczalak, and R. Marks 
Petroleum hydrocarbons in the onshore zone 
220 
M. Otsmann, V. Astok, T. Kullas, 
and Ülo Suursaar 
Two-channel model for water exchange (the Gulf of Riga case) 
225 
V. T. Paka, N. N. Golenko, and V. 
M. Zhurbas 
Investigation on mesoscale dynamics of the Baltic Sea 
232 
J. Piskozub, V. Drozdowska, T. Krol, 
Z. Otremba, and A. Stelmaszewski 
Oil content in Baltic Sea water and possibilities for detection and 
identification by the Lidar method 
244 
 iv

ICES Cooperative Research Report, No. 257 
 
 
P. P. Provotorov, V. P. Korovin, Y. I. 
Lyakhin, A. V. Nekrasov, and V. Y. 
Chantsev 
Hydrographic and hydrochemical structure of waters in the Luga–
Koporye region during the summer period 
248 
A. Rosemarin  An assessment of the functional linkages between Baltic marine 
research and the development of resource management policies 
254 
N. Spirkauskaite, K. Stelingis, V. 
Lujanas, G. Lujaniene, and T. 
Petelski 
Effects of Baltic Sea coastal zone atmospheric peculiarities (during 
BAEX) on the formation of the 
7
Be concentration in the air 
263 
Ü. Suusaar, V. Astok, T. Kullas, and 
M. Ostmann 
Water and nutrient exchange through the Suur Strait (Väinameri) in 
1993–1995 
267 
N. Tarasiuk, N. Spirkauskaité, K. 
Stelingis, G. Lujaniené, M. Schultz, 
and R. Marks 
Investigation of the atmospheric impurity washout in the Baltic Sea 
coastal wave breaking zone during BAEX using radioactive tracers 
274 
B. Woznaik, A. Rozwadowska, S. 
Kaczmarek, S. B. Wozniak, and M. 
Ostrowska 
Seasonal variability of the solar radiation flux and its utilisation in the 
Southern Baltic 
280 
Z. Zhang and M. Lepparanta  Numerical study on the reducing influence of ice on water pile-up in 
Bothnian Bay 
299 
C. Zülicke, E. Hagen, A. Stips, I. 
Schuffenhauer, and O. Hennig 
Surface mixed-layer dynamics 
307 
S. V. Victorov  Towards operational regional satellite oceanography for the Baltic Sea 
313 
I. P. Chubarenko  Vistula Lagoon water level oscillations: numerical modelling and field 
data analysis 
318 
J. S. Møller  DYNOCS: Status October 1996 
321 
  List of contributors 
325 
  List of participants 
330 
 
 
 
 
v

 
ICES Cooperative Research Report, No. 257 Baltic Marine Science Conference, Rønne, Denmark, 
 22–26 October 1996 
 
 
 
Foreword 
 
When ICES agreed to publish this collection of papers from the 1996 Baltic Marine Science Conference it had just 
completed devising a new structure for its Science Committees. This structure included an ecosystem-based group, the 
Baltic Committee, which reflected the strong interest of ICES in supporting the community of Baltic scientists, as well 
as its recognition that the Baltic would provide a valuable test bed for its ambition of developing ways to manage 
ecosystems in an integrated way. This ambition is still cherished and is manifested now, not only in a thriving Baltic 
Committee, but also through its active support, in its Secretariat, of the Project Office of the World Bank’s GEF “Baltic 
Sea Regional Project (BSRP)” under the leadership of Jan Thulin. BSRP is an ambitious new project for managing the 
Baltic Sea ecosystem. 
 
ICES recognised the importance of the Conference by sending the Chair of its Advisory Committee on the Marine 
Environment (Dr Katherine Richardson) to represent its interests there. Katherine contributed to the Conference by 
making a presentation on “The Baltic Sea – A Grand Challenge for ICES”.  In this she explained ICES interests from a 
Baltic perspective and how ICES supports Baltic science. In particular she noted that almost half of the Member 
Countries of ICES are in fact Baltic countries, which meant that ICES interests in the region had a very firm foundation.  
She also noted that Baltic science must be steered to address all the vital problems of the area in a multidisciplinary 
way, and that ICES is the organisation best suited to undertake the required steering. 
 
This collection of papers represents an excellent cross-section of most of the current science issues pertaining to the 
Baltic. It is a document that will be put to good use within ICES and that will also be of great value to the whole Baltic 
community and anyone else interested in the scientific understanding of the Baltic Sea.  
 
 
Harry Dooley 
 
ICES Science Coordinator 
 
1 February 2003 
 
 
vii

 
ICES Cooperative Research ReportNo. 257 Baltic Marine Science Conference, Rønne, Denmark, 
22–26 October 1996 
 
 
 
Preface 
 
Marine Scientific activities in the Baltic Sea are carried out by a number of national and international organisations and 
groups as well as by individual researches belonging to different institutes, universities, etc. Some are concerned with 
applied science such as fish stock assessment and anthropogenic influence on the marine environment, others devote 
themselves to more basic hydrographical, marine geological or marine biological work. 
 
It had long been a wish among many Baltic scientists to simplify and coordinate the activities of various groups to 
achieve better efficiency regarding work on the Baltic problems when the Baltic Marine Science Conference was 
arranged in Rønne on the Danish island of Bornholm on 22–26 October 1996. The organisers were the Baltic Marine 
Biologists (BMB), the Baltic Oceanographers (CBO), and a group consisting of Baltic Geologists. The Conference was 
also co-sponsored by the Baltic Marine Environment Protection Commission (HELCOM) and the International Council 
for the Exploration of the SEA (ICES). 
 
The intention was to bring together people and groups working within different branches of Baltic marine research to 
facilitate contacts and discussions and to bring information on ongoing research and results of research projects. The 
outcome was a number of papers in different scientific fields, some of which are published in this volume, as well as 
results from fairly deep discussions on Baltic problems and the future organisation of Baltic Research. Some of the 
differences in opinion could not be bridged at once, but time has shown that Baltic cooperation is increasing, for 
example through a similar, well-visited conference in Stockholm in 2001 and the next conference planned in Helsinki in 
2003. BMB and CBO also co-sponsored the Baltic Sea Science Conference in Rostock-Warnemünde in 1998. 
 
The printing of this volume has been delayed for technical reasons. It has, however, been considered valuable to publish 
these papers which deal with current problems. 
 
We thank the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) for the valuable assistance in printing the 
volume. 
 
 
Bernt Dybern 
Hans Dahlin 
 
For BMB 
for CBO 
 
 
 
 
International Steering Committee 
 
Hans Dahlin, CBO, Chair 
Ingemar Cato, BMG 
Bernt Dybern, BMB 
Hans Peter Hansen, CBO 
Bodo v. Bodungen, CBO 
Matti Perttilä, CBO 
Sigurd Schultz, BMB 
Serge Victorov, CBO 
Erik Buch, CBO 
HELCOM and ICES 
 
 
Local Organising Committee 
 
Erik Buch, Chair 
Gunni Ærtebjerg 
Birger Larsen 
Jørn Bo Jensen 
Karsten Bolding 
Lars Hagerman 
Lars Chresten Lund-Hansen 
 viii

ICES Cooperative Research Report, No. 257 
Baltic Marine Science Conference, Rønne, Denmark, 22–26 October 1996 
 
Statement from the Baltic Marine Science Conference 
 
 
Rønne, Denmark, 22–26 October 1996 
 
 
 
The Baltic Sea is an ecosystem with unique features and its ecological condition is of great importance for the 
surrounding human population. In the past years, several indications of improved environmental conditions in the Baltic 
Sea have been found, but the overall view on the system is that it is still severely threatened in many respects. If these 
threats are not met by proper management, serious environmental, economic and political problems and even conflicts 
may develop in the future. 
 
Baltic marine scientists have a comprehensive knowledge and expertise in relevant research, monitoring and 
management programmes. The knowledge of the scientists has to be used more efficiently, and it is a challenge for both 
the scientists and the politicians to achieve this. 
 
The Baltic Sea is recognised world-wide as the cradle of modern oceanography, and extraordinary test site where the 
implementation of measurement systems, new marine biological techniques, remotely sensed data, management 
processes and assessment of short– and long–term trends has led to a high degree of operationality. 
 
Experiences gained during decades and the present socio-economic situation in Europe makes the Baltic marine 
scientists suggest a better usage of the multidisciplinary modern research results in the Baltic Sea Region than hitherto.  
 
 
 
Statement discussed and adopted on 26 October 1996. 
 
 
1

Janina Šyvokiene and Liongina Mickeniene
3
ICES Cooperative Research Report, No. 257                            Baltic Marine Science Conference, Rønne, Denmark, 22–26 October 1996
Micro-organisms in the digestive tract
s of Baltic fish 
Janina Šyvokiene and Liongina Mickeniene
Abstract
Investigations of the aerobic bacterial flora in the digestive tract of the following fish were carried out in 1995: 
• European flounder (Platichthys flesus)
• burbot (Lota lota)
• Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras)
• bullrout (Myoxocephalus scorpius)
• European pike-perch (Stizostedion lucioperca)
• European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus)
• ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus)
• plaice (Pleuronectes platessa)
• Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias)
• European smelt (Osmerus eperlanus) from the Lithuanian coast (Baltic Sea). 
Heterotrophic bacteria predominated in the bacteriocenosis of the digestive tract of the tested fish, proteolytic and amylo-
lytic bacteria were isolated too. Increasing environmental pollution by various xenobiotics affects the bacteriocenosis of
the digestive system of animals. Hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were detected in great abundance in the digestive tract
of the tested species, and counts were highest in autumn with a maximum of about 3×10
5
 cells g
–1
 in ruffe. Hydro-
carbon-degrading bacteria get into the digestive tract of fish from the environment and oil products—with food. Oil
products taken up by fish may be partly degraded by enzymes of micro-organisms present in the intestines. We argue that
fish with well developed intestinal microflora have a greater opportunity to assimilate food with high efficiency, and that
increasing environmental pollution by xenobiotics may effect the bacteriocenosis of the digestive tract.
Introduction
The gut is sterile until hatching, but soon after hatching, the fish comes into contact with the environment and live food
that leads to successive colonisation by a variety of microbes (Hansen et al., 1992; Munro et al., 1994; Ringø et al., 1996,
Ringø, Olsen, 1999). The balance of this microbiota is influenced by a variety of factors including food, animal physi-
ology and immunological factors (Ringø, Strøm, 1994). The establishment of a normal gut flora may be regarded as
complementary to the establishment of digestive enzymes and under normal conditions it serves as a barrier against
invading pathogens (Sugita et al., 1988; Ringø, Gastesoupe, 1998). It has been indicated, however, that the gastrointes-
tinal microflora of aquatic animals is less abundant in both generic diversity and population number compared with that
of terrestrial mammals (Sakata, 1990). Recently, these bacteria were found to be important for the physiology of such
aquatic animals by producing vitamins, digestive enzymes and amino acids similar to those of mammals (Šyvokiene,
1989; Sugita et al., 1991; Mickeniene, 1992). Most studies on the intestinal microbial community in fish focus on the
total microbiota found in the intestinal contents or in intestinal homogenates (Sugita et al., 1985; Cahill, 1990).
Increasing environmental pollution has an undoubtless influence on hydrobionts, as well as fish, and on microorganisms
associated with their digestive tract (Mironov, 1987, Suchanek, 1992; Leahy, Colwell, 1992). Changes in life conditions
of the macroorganism cause changes in the structure of communities of intestinal microorganisms and functioning
regularities of separate populations of microorganisms (Sugita et al., 1987). Published data about the microorganisms of
the digestive tract of Baltic fish from the Lithuanian coastal zone are scare. The aim of this study was to determine
quantitative and qualitative indices of the microflora in the digestive tract of various fish species from the Baltic Sea in
relation to feeding mode and season. 

Micro-organisms in the digestive tract
s of Baltic fish

Material and Methods
Quantitative and qualitative compositions of the bacteriocenosis of the digestive tract of 10 species of fish were analysed
under laboratory conditions. The aerobic bacterial population from the digestive tract was investigated as described by
Segi (1983), Romanenko (1985), Kuznecov and Dubinina (1989). 
Fish samples were taken from the Lithuanian coastal zone in spring (March and April), summer (August), and autumn
(November) 1995. All fish were caught before midday according to guidelines given by Thoresson (1996). The fish were
killed by a blow to the head and brought to the laboratory on ice (with a maximum 6 hours from catching to sampling).
Preliminary experiments showed that the contents of cultivatable bacteria in the intestine did not change significantly
during this period, neither qualitatively nor quantitatively (Onarheim et al., 1994). Five specimens were analysed per
species and sampling date. The fish were cleaned externally with ethanol and the intestines dissected under sterile condi-
tions. The contents were squeezed, weighed and placed in a physiological NaCl solution, diluted in the range from 1:10
to 1:1000000. Subsamples of 0.1ml of at least of three dilutions expected to give between 30 and 300 colony forming
units were placed on four different nutrient media and incubated at 20–22
o
C. The media chosen were:
• beef agar (for isolation of heterotrophic bacteria): 1l beef water, 10.0g peptone, 5.0g NaCl, 20.0g agar;
• milk agar (for proteolytic bacteria): 1l distilled water, 20.0g agar and 40ml skimmed milk;
• starch agar (for amylolytic bacteria): 1l distilled water, 0.5g KH
2
PO
4
, 0.5g K
2
HPO
4
, 0.2g MgSO
4
·7H
2
O, 0.2g
(NH
4
)
2
SO
4
, 10.0g starch, 20.0g agar
• Dianova and Voroshilova medium (for hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria): 1l distilled water, 1.0g NH
4
NO
3
, 1.0g
KH
2
PO
4
, 1.0g K
2
HPO
4
·3H
2
O, 0.2g MgSO
4
·7H
2
O, 0.02g CaCl
2
·6H
2
O, traces of FeCl
3
·6H
2
O, 20.0g agar; a thin
layer of black oil was spread on the agar medium as hydrocarbon source. The same medium without the hydrocarbon
source was used as a control.
Bacterial colonies appearing on each plate were counted and a count of viable bacteria per g wet weight of intestinal
contents was obtained accordingly. Proteolytic bacteria were identified according to zones of protein (casein) hydrolysis
on milk agar, amylolytic bacteria were determined according to zones of starch hydrolysis under the action of iodine
solution.
The digestive tracts of 57 fish were investigated including the following species: European flounder (Platichthys flesus),
burbot (Lota lota), Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras), bullrout (Myoxocephalus scorpius), European pike-perch
(Stizostedion lucioperca), European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus), ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus). plaice
(Pleuronectes platessa), Baltic cod (Gadus morhua callarias), European smelt (Osmerus eperlanus).


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