Identification: olive colored; dark mottlings along the sides, whitish belly; 6 spines in anal fin and 12 in the dorsal; about 10 inches long (Iowa dnr)


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Identification: olive colored; dark mottlings along the sides, whitish belly; 6 spines in anal fin and 12 in the dorsal; about 10 inches long (Iowa DNR)

  • Identification: olive colored; dark mottlings along the sides, whitish belly; 6 spines in anal fin and 12 in the dorsal; about 10 inches long (Iowa DNR)

  • Distribution: northeastern interior streams; rarely in the upper part of the Des Moines and Mississippi Rivers and large natural lakes (Iowa DNR)


Smallmouth Bass

  • by: Andy Glass



Identification

  • Color

  • Bars

  • Mouth

  • Eye

  • Tail

  • Pyloric caeca



Distribution

  • Native NE U.S. Canada

  • Introduced Nationwide

  • Iowa



Habitat

  • Early morning/evening

  • Clear water

  • Rivers

  • Lakes



Diet

  • Forage Fish

  • Crustaceans

  • Insects

  • Copepods

  • Cladocerans



Reproduction

  • Time

  • Temp

  • Location

  • Nest

  • Courtship

  • Eggs

  • Parental Care



Conservation Status

  • Good population

  • Bag limits

  • Length limits



Economic, Recreational, and Ecological Importance

  • Economically important

  • Great fishing

  • Top predator



Other

  • Other names: brown bass, browny, bronzeback, green trout, river bass, jumper, Oswego bass, redeye bass

  • Max weight: 6-7 lbs

  • 3-4 lb considered trophy



References

  • Iowa Department of Natural Resources. 1987. IowaDNR Fish and Fishing.

  • Available at http://www.iowadnr.com/fish/iafish/sm-bass.html. September 2004

  • L.M. Page and B.M. Burr. 1991. Freshwater Fishes.

  • Houghton Mifflin, New York



Diet: aquatic insects, minnows, other small fish (Iowa DNR), and crayfish, other invertebrates (Minnesota DNR)

  • Diet: aquatic insects, minnows, other small fish (Iowa DNR), and crayfish, other invertebrates (Minnesota DNR)

  • Reproduction: spawns in the spring when water temperatures range from 60s to 70s; female has about 5,000 eggs; male makes nest in sand or gravel and then guards the eggs & fry

  • Conservation status: Common and Native



Economic/recreational value: Popular game fish

  • Economic/recreational value: Popular game fish

  • Ecological importance:

  • None

  • Other Common Names: redeye, goggle eye, black perch, rock sunfish, redeye bass



References: Ambloplites rupestris

  • Iowa Department of Natural Resources. 1994. IowaDNR Fish and Fishing. Available at http://www.iowadnr.com/fish/iafish/iafish.html. November 2004.

  • Iowa Department of Natural Resources. 1994. IowaDNR Fish and Fishing. Available at http://www.iowadnr.com/education/files/nrkbass.pdf. November 2004.

  • Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Fishes of Minnesota. Available at http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/fish/bass/rock/index.html. November 2004.

  • Vacationer. More photo contest entries. 2 September 2004.

  • Virtual Aquarium. Available at http://www.cnr.vt.edu/efish/families/rockbass.html. November 2004.



Pumpkinseed Lepornis gibbosus Family Centrarchidae Eric Giebelstein



Pumpkinseed

  • Identification

    • Deep bodied, small mouth, small gill flap with red spot, 10-11 dorsal fin spines, short gill rakers
    • Orange to red-orange on ventral side, brown to olive on dorsal and on sides. Speckled with orange, yellow, blue, and emerald spots. Blue horizontal stripes posterior to eye.


Pumpkinseed

  • Distribution

    • North-eastern 2/3 of Iowa
    • Found in natural lakes and Mississippi River. Less common in man-made lakes and interior streams and rivers.


Pumpkinseed

  • Habitat

    • Clear lakes with:
      • Aquatic plants
      • Sandy or silted bottom
      • Decaying debris
  • Diet

    • Adults eat insects, snails, small mollusks, and small fish
    • Juveniles eat zooplankton


Pumpkinseed

  • Reproduction

    • Nesting fish like bluegill
      • Creates nest in littoral zone but nearer to shore than bluegill under shady areas with sandy bottoms
      • Male protects nest
      • If space is available, they are colonial nesters, usually around 4-15 nests in a colony
    • Spawning
      • Begins in May when water temperatures reach 68 degrees
      • Lasts through July with peak activity in June
    • Clutch size
      • 1,500-1,700 eggs


Pumpkinseed

  • Iowa conservation status: uncommon/native

  • Economic importance

    • Due to small number, fairly unimportant.
    • Does provide some recreational value
  • Ecological importance

    • Provide food for all piscivorous fish and some shallow feeding birds
    • Populations can become stunted if predation is reduced


References

  • Fishes of the Great Lakes: Pumpkinseed. 2004. Available at http://www .seagrant.wisc.edu/greatlakesfishes. November 2004.

  • Fishes of Ohio. 2004. Available at http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org November 2004.

  • Iowa DNR Fish and Fishing: Pumpkinseed. 2004 Available at: http://www .iowadnr.com/fish/iafish. November 2004.

  • National Battlefield Park: Wildlife. 2004. Available at: www.nps.gov/rich/ pphtml/subanimals4.html. November 2004.



Orange-Spotted Sunfish Lepomis humilis Jason Palmer

  • http://www.iowadnr.com/fish/iafish/osptcard.html



Identification

  • Large mouth that extends to front of eye

  • Spiny dorsal fin with 10 spines

  • Males have vivid orange spots on sides

  • Females spots are red/brown

  • Large black ear flap



Habitat and Range

  • Prefer slow moving, heavily vegetated streams and rivers with gravel and sand substrates

  • Live in every thing from large rivers to small streams

  • Range is the entire Mississippi river watershed



Reproduction

  • Solitary nest builders

  • Males build and protect the nest

  • Males guard over eggs until hatched

  • Spawning is between May and November



Feeding Habits and Importance

  • Generally feeds on the bottom

  • Very ferocious and will eat any thing it can get a hold of

  • Diet includes: Insects, crustaceans and occasionally small fish

  • Important as a member of the food web

  • Some commercial importance as an aquarium species



Citations

  • Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Iowa DNR Fish and Fishing. Available at http://www.iowadnr.com/fish/iafish/osptcard.html. Oct. 2004

  • Florida Fish and Wildlife. Fishes. Available at http://floridafisheries.com/Fishes/panfish.html#spotted . Oct 2004

  • Lawrence, M. Page. and B. M.. Burr. 1991. A Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes. Houghton Miffin Company, New York.



Orange-Spotted Sunfish Lepomis humilis Jason Palmer

  • http://www.iowadnr.com/fish/iafish/osptcard.html



Identification

  • Large mouth that extends to front of eye

  • Spiny dorsal fin with 10 spines

  • Males have vivid orange spots on sides

  • Females spots are red/brown

  • Large black ear flap



Habitat and Range

  • Prefer slow moving, heavily vegetated streams and rivers with gravel and sand substrates

  • Live in every thing from large rivers to small streams

  • Range is the entire Mississippi river watershed



Reproduction

  • Solitary nest builders

  • Males build and protect the nest

  • Males guard over eggs until hatched

  • Spawning is between May and November



Feeding Habits and Importance

  • Generally feeds on the bottom

  • Very ferocious and will eat any thing it can get a hold of

  • Diet includes: Insects, crustaceans and occasionally small fish

  • Important as a member of the food web

  • Some commercial importance as an aquarium species



Citations

  • Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Iowa DNR Fish and Fishing. Available at http://www.iowadnr.com/fish/iafish/osptcard.html. Oct. 2004

  • Florida Fish and Wildlife. Fishes. Available at http://floridafisheries.com/Fishes/panfish.html#spotted . Oct 2004

  • Lawrence, M. Page. and B. M.. Burr. 1991. A Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes. Houghton Miffin Company, New York.





Characteristics

  • White crappies have six spines on the dorsal fin with a banded body.

  • Black crappies have seven to nine spines with a spotted body.

  • Length: 6-13 inches

  • Weight: Rarely exceed 2lbs.

  • Silvery body with shades of green and black on the anterior side.

  • Epiterminal mouth.

  • Pomoxis is Greek for “opercle sharp”



Reproduction/Habitat/Diet

  • They spawn in spring in shallow water over sand and gravel substrates and are easily caught at that time. After spawning, crappies move offshore into deeper, cooler areas.

  • They feed largely on aquatic insects and small fishes.

  • Males guard the nest, and young after the eggs hatch. Generally mature in second or third year of life, rarely live more than 6 to 7 years.



Ecological/Economic

  • Economic value: White crappie are mainly a game fish in Iowa.

  • Ecological value: Middle of the food web feeder.

  • Helps maintain population of lower fish on the food chain.

  • Top water feeder.



Conservation/Distribution

  • Statewide in lakes and large rivers.

  • Conservation: White Crappies are abundant statewide.



Misc.

  • Pomoxis is Greek for “opercle sharp”

  • State Record - "crappie" record 4 pounds, 9 ounces - Green Castle Lake, Marshall County, May 1981 - Ted Trowbridge, Marshalltown.

  • Other names - silver crappie, bachelor, white perch, sac-a-lait, newlight, strawberry bass, goggle eye, papermouth, tin mouth, bachelor perch, slab



References

  • National Battlefield Park: Wildlife. 2004. Available at: www.nps.gov/rich/ pphtml/subanimals4.html. November 2004.

  • Iowa DNR Fish: White Crappie. 2004. Available at: http://www.iowadnr.com/fish/iafish/whc-card.html. November 2004.

  • Texas Freshwater Fishing: White Crappie. 2004. Available at: http://www.tpwd.state.tx.us/fish/infish/species/wcp/wcp.htm. November 2004.

  • Colorado Division of Wildlife. White Crappie. 2004. Available at: http://waterknowledge.colostate.edu/whitecra.htm. November 2004.



Citations

  • Iowa Department of Natural Resources. Iowa DNR Fish and Fishing. Available at http://www.iowadnr.com/fish/iafish/osptcard.html. Oct. 2004

  • Florida Fish and Wildlife. Fishes. Available at http://floridafisheries.com/Fishes/panfish.html#spotted . Oct 2004

  • Lawrence, M. Page. and B. M.. Burr. 1991. A Field Guide to Freshwater Fishes. Houghton Miffin Company, New York.













Smallmouth Bass

  • by: Andy Glass



Identification

  • Color

  • Bars

  • Mouth

  • Eye

  • Tail

  • Pyloric caeca



Distribution

  • Native NE U.S. Canada

  • Introduced Nationwide

  • Iowa



Habitat

  • Early morning/evening

  • Clear water

  • Rivers

  • Lakes



Diet

  • Forage Fish

  • Crustaceans

  • Insects

  • Copepods

  • Cladocerans



Reproduction

  • Time

  • Temp

  • Location

  • Nest

  • Courtship

  • Eggs

  • Parental Care



Conservation Status

  • Good population

  • Bag limits

  • Length limits



Economic, Recreational, and Ecological Importance

  • Economically important

  • Great fishing

  • Top predator



Other

  • Other names: brown bass, browny, bronzeback, green trout, river bass, jumper, Oswego bass, redeye bass

  • Max weight: 6-7 lbs

  • 3-4 lb considered trophy



References

  • Iowa Department of Natural Resources. 1987. IowaDNR Fish and Fishing.

  • Available at http://www.iowadnr.com/fish/iafish/sm-bass.html. September 2004

  • L.M. Page and B.M. Burr. 1991. Freshwater Fishes.

  • Houghton Mifflin, New York





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