In the world there are more people that are bilinguals than monolinguals


Download 445 b.
Sana03.09.2018
Hajmi445 b.



in the world there are more people that are bilinguals than monolinguals (Myers-Scotton, Saville-Troike, 2006)

  • in the world there are more people that are bilinguals than monolinguals (Myers-Scotton, Saville-Troike, 2006)

  • Bilingualism at least involve two languages

  • Fields that involve two languages are bilingualism, language acquisition and translation



Myers-Scotton (2006: 44): bilingualism is the ability to use two or more languages sufficiently to carry on a limited casual conversation.

  • Myers-Scotton (2006: 44): bilingualism is the ability to use two or more languages sufficiently to carry on a limited casual conversation.

  • Saville-Troike: bilingualism is the ability to use two languages

  • Translation: translation from one language to another

  • Language acquisition covers L1 and L2

  • L1: a person first language

  • SLA: the learning of another language after the first language has been learned



Translation and bilingualism



Translators are bilinguals

  • Translators are bilinguals

  • 3 year old children

  • a bilingual task, at both direction is already there before he has acquired adult-like language competence at three-year-old with relatively few errors.



However three-year-old children are perfectly capable of translating when the social context requires it and do so spontaneously (Harris, 1980).

  • However three-year-old children are perfectly capable of translating when the social context requires it and do so spontaneously (Harris, 1980).

  • Malakoff & Hakuta (1991) found that elementary bilingual Spanish-English school children translate verbal materials that are within their comprehension range in both directions and with relatively few errors.

  • Besides using translation spontaneously, the bilingual child requests translation equivalents in the other language. The onset of awareness of two systems is evidenced around the second birthday ((Hammers and Blanc 2000, 58-60).



Costa and Santesteban (2006) said that the ability to speak two languages is a worthy skill to have, however "bilingual speakers need to control their production in such a way that the two languages do not end up mixed in an appropriate manner during the discourse" (p.115).

  • Costa and Santesteban (2006) said that the ability to speak two languages is a worthy skill to have, however "bilingual speakers need to control their production in such a way that the two languages do not end up mixed in an appropriate manner during the discourse" (p.115).

  • How does a bilingual speaker control her two languages during speech production?

  • How does a bilingual speaker manage to avoid massive interference from the language they are not using?



 DeGroot and Christoffels (2006, 197 quoted from DeGroot and Christoffels 2005)  

  •  DeGroot and Christoffels (2006, 197 quoted from DeGroot and Christoffels 2005)  

  • The input processing mechanism of the source language is activated (to allow for comprehension of the source language),

  • but the output processing mechanism of the source language is inhibited (so that no source language elements emerge in the interpreter's output).

  • Furthermore, both the input and output processing mechanism of the target language are activated, albeit possibly to different degrees.

  • The target language's output processing mechanism is activated for the obvious reason that output in this language is required.

  • That the target language's input processing mechanism is activated as well is suggested by the fact that interpreters, as language users in a monolingual setting, monitor their own speech.



Although there is no research about the mechanism in the child's mind of consecutive interpreting or translating, the mechanism probably will not be far from this one, which is not something simple to do.

  • Although there is no research about the mechanism in the child's mind of consecutive interpreting or translating, the mechanism probably will not be far from this one, which is not something simple to do.



A simultaneous acquisition of German and French (Jordens 1994) was carried out in Germany between 1986 and 1992 on five children who grew up in families where French was the language of the mother and German the father.

  • A simultaneous acquisition of German and French (Jordens 1994) was carried out in Germany between 1986 and 1992 on five children who grew up in families where French was the language of the mother and German the father.

  • At first French was prominent because they were all taken care of by their mothers, then the role of German became more important



One of the children produces more French directly after a trip to France in their holiday. Beginning at the age of three years, she stopped speaking French. Even with her mother she responds in German.

  • One of the children produces more French directly after a trip to France in their holiday. Beginning at the age of three years, she stopped speaking French. Even with her mother she responds in German.

  • Another child started going to bilingual French-German daycare center and the family goes back to France twice a year. He always used both languages, but French was initially dominant. Later he preferred German more.



Another child's parents always speak in German with each other, but her mother insists on being addressed in French by the children. From the age of 2;11 onwards she spent weekday mornings in a German daycare center. After the age of 2;6 German began to be more dominant language, and her German vocabulary expanded quickly. From about 3;0 onwards she has increasing problems of vocabulary in French during later phases of development.

  • Another child's parents always speak in German with each other, but her mother insists on being addressed in French by the children. From the age of 2;11 onwards she spent weekday mornings in a German daycare center. After the age of 2;6 German began to be more dominant language, and her German vocabulary expanded quickly. From about 3;0 onwards she has increasing problems of vocabulary in French during later phases of development.



“Researchers simply do not know how much language exposure is necessary in the two languages to produce a balanced bilingual. For practical purposes, the rule of thumb is that the child should receive roughly equal amount of input in the two languages to achieve native proficiency in both."

  • “Researchers simply do not know how much language exposure is necessary in the two languages to produce a balanced bilingual. For practical purposes, the rule of thumb is that the child should receive roughly equal amount of input in the two languages to achieve native proficiency in both."

  • It seems that more input determines the more preferred language.



L2 influences L1. Usually in second language acquisition L1 influences L2.

  • L2 influences L1. Usually in second language acquisition L1 influences L2.

  • a case study of an advanced adult Finnish-speaking learner of English named Aino shows that the L2 influences her L1.

  • Leung’s research



Text in second language to translate into mother tongue brings input

  • Text in second language to translate into mother tongue brings input

    • Vocabulary, idioms, terms to analyze
    • Passive-acquired structure
  • Translate into L2-output is auto input

    • Vocabulary, idioms, terms to restructure in L2
    • structures


Translation – bilingualism:

  • Translation – bilingualism:

    • How does interpreters or translators keep the input processing mechanism and output processing mechanism so that in interpreting the words of both languages are not mixed?
    • If children are good at interpreting or translating, why do adults speaking two languages make lots of errors in translation? Is there any translation competence ? If yes, does this competence also have its critical period like CPH in language acquisition?


Does translation bring about progress in their grammar or vocabulary?

    • Does translation bring about progress in their grammar or vocabulary?
  • Is translation a useful method in language learning or acquisition? How useful is it in terms of grammar and vocabulary?

  • Which one is more useful to the acquisition of an L2: translation into the mother tongue or translation into an L2?



Does L2 influence L1?

  • Does L2 influence L1?

  • Does L3 influence L1 and also L2?

  • If a child learns more than two foreign languages, do the two languages will be mixed? E.g. an Indonesian child learn English and Mandarin?



These are not exhaustive lists on questions of possible research.

  • These are not exhaustive lists on questions of possible research.

  • There are still many other topics.




Do'stlaringiz bilan baham:


Ma'lumotlar bazasi mualliflik huquqi bilan himoyalangan ©fayllar.org 2017
ma'muriyatiga murojaat qiling