Indian Wars of Montana Indian Education for All

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Indian Wars of Montana

  • Indian Education for All

  • Grade 5

Battle of the Rosebud

  • One of the largest confrontations of the Montana Indian Wars

  • 1876

    • Army trying to round up Sioux and Cheyenne tribes to place on the reservation

Battle of the Little Bighorn

    • Custer
      • Has 1050 soldiers
      • Has 260 Crow and Shoshone scouts
      • Is in Montana Territory in Rosebud Valley
      • Scouts report a large concentration of Lakota Sioux and Cheyenne tribes
      • Crook led one of three columns of soldiers

Battle of the Rosebud

  • June 17, 1876

    • Crazy Horse and Crook
      • Have equal number of fighters
      • Fight battle over uneven ground
      • Separate into three skirmishes
      • Brave deeds were witnessed on both sides
        • Cheyenne girl saves her brother after his horse is shot out from under him
    • Skirmishes last 6 hours
      • Lakota and Cheyenne call off fight
      • Battle has come to a standstill
      • Crook’s army
        • 10 killed; 21 wounded
      • Indians suffer similar losses

Battle of the Rosebud

  • Crook withdraws to Goose Creek

    • Near Sheridan, Wyoming
    • His troops are out of any further campaigns for two months
  • Different views of the battle

    • Crook blamed for the defeat 8 days later of Custer because he didn’t route the Indians at Rosebud
    • Crook felt victorious because Indians left battlefield
    • Lakota and Sioux felt victorious because they defended their land
    • Crow and Shoshone (scouts) felt victorious because they helped fight the Lakota and Cheyenne who were encroaching on their lands

Battle of the Little Bighorn

  • Known as “Custer’s Last Stand”

  • 1874

    • Discovery of gold in Black Hills
    • Prospectors entering Native American Territory
    • Lakota Sioux
    • Chiefs Sitting Bull,
      • Crazy Horse and Gall
      • Led assaults on
      • prospectors

Battle of the Little Bighorn

  • 1875

    • U.S. tries and fails to acquire Black Hills Territory
    • Indians refused to sell because they considered it sacred ground

Battle of the Little Bighorn

  • 1876

    • Army launches expedition against Lakota and Cheyenne
  • 1876

    • Army plans to gather Sioux and Cheyenne tribes and force them onto reservations
    • Custer joins the expedition
    • Commander is General Alfred Terry

Battle of the Little Bighorn

  • George A. Custer

    • Chief army officer in battle
    • One of the youngest general in U.S. army
    • After Civil War was given the rank of captain
    • 1866 Custer joins the 7th Calvary and becomes a Lieutenant Colonel
    • Acquired fame as an Indian fighter in the Southwest, Dakota and Montana territories

Battle of the Little Bighorn

  • Soldiers enter Montana Territory

    • Scouts see
      • Campfire smoke
      • Signs of Indians encampments
  • Custer

    • Ignores orders from Terry
    • Decides to attack Indian encampment before infantry and support arrive
    • June 25, 1876 spies Indian village 15 miles in the distance on Little Bighorn River
    • Believes there are 1000 Indians

Battle of the Little Bighorn

  • Custer

    • Feels his 647 men could easily defeat 1000 Indians
      • (Actually Indian village has 2,500 to 5,000 people instead of 1000 as Custer thought)
      • This village was the largest assembly of tribes in Western history
    • Custer orders immediate attack on village
      • He splits his regiment into 3 columns:
        • Captain Benteen
        • Major Reno
        • General Custer

Eyewitness Battle Account

  • ONE BULL Minneconjou Sioux, Nephew of Sitting Bull, Describing Reno's Charge on the Indian Village

  • "I was sitting in my teepee combing my hair....I saw a man named Fat Bear come running into camp and he said soldiers were coming on the other side of the river....We could hear lots of shooting. I went to [the] teepee of my uncle, Sitting Bull, and said I was going to take part in the battle."

Battle of the Little Bighorn

  • Captain Benteen

    • Ordered to search the valleys for Indians
  • Major Reno

    • Ordered to charge across the river and attack the village
  • General Custer

    • Will advance to the higher ground to the right and attack the village from the rear

Battle of the Little Bighorn

  • Major Reno

    • Encountered bloody fighting in the valley
    • Retreats across the river and up the bluffs
    • Joins Captain Benteen’s men and take up defensive positions
    • Benteen and Reno hold this position for two days until General Terry arrives on June 27

Battle of the Little Bighorn

  • General Custer

    • Is 5 miles away attacking the village
    • Troops are completely wiped out by Chief Crazy Horse and Chief Gall’s warriors
    • Not one of Custer’s men survived
  • U.S. Army retaliated swiftly

    • Lakota Sioux scattered
    • Crazy Horse capture
      • Murdered while in army custody

Nez Perce War of 1877

  • Five bands of Nez Perce begin 1700 mile trek to try to reach Canada

    • Tribe hopes to have peaceful trip
    • Trying to avoid going to reservation
  • General Howard has orders to bring the Nez Perce Tribe to a reservation in Idaho

  • Nez Perce Tribe

    • Arrives in Big Hole Valley on August 7

Nez Perce War of 1877

  • Nez Perce

    • Chief Looking Glass
      • Is a trail chief for tribe
      • Sets up camp using an old camp site
      • Doesn’t place guards
      • Feels safe

Eyewitness Account of the Battle

  • "We came to that place in the afternoon, towards evening. We stayed that night and next day. Evening came on again, and it was after sundown — not too late — lots of us children were playing. It was below the camp towards the creek that we ... boys played the stick or bone game. They were noisy, having lots of fun, and I was with them. We were only having a good time." White Bird Nez Perce Child

Nez Perce War of 1877

  • Colonel Gibbon

    • Is in charge of secondary army force
    • Has 163 men
    • Have orders to catch up to Nez Perce
    • Attacks Nez Perce camp
      • Shoot women and children along with warriors
      • 60 to 90 people killed
        • Mostly women, children and old people

Eyewitness Account of Battle

  • "The women, all scared when the soldiers charged the camp, ran into the water, the brush. Any place where they could hide themselves and children. Many were killed as they ran. They had no guns. Those two brave women must have run for shelter, but seeing so many women and children falling, got guns, maybe from dead soldiers, and helped drive the enemies from the camp." Red Wolf Nez Perce Warrior

Nez Perce War of 1877

  • Nez Perce Indians

    • Divide tribe into 3 bands
      • One band withdraw to help Chief Joseph
      • One band stays to care for injured and bury the dead
      • One band keeps battle going with soldiers so tribe members can go south

Nez Perce War of 1877

  • Nez Perce

    • Indians continue to fight until August 10
    • Remaining warriors slip away to rejoin the main part of tribe
    • September 30
      • Near Bear Paw Mountains of Montana
      • 40 miles south of Canadian border
      • Nez Perce are surprised by Colonel Miles
      • Battle lasts five days
      • Tribe hungry and cold

Nez Perce War of 1877

      • Four major chiefs of the tribe are killed including Looking Glass
        • Looking Glass
          • Is Chief Joseph’s brother
          • Is killed in this battle
      • Tribe has no reserve food supply of food
      • Old people are dying of cold and hunger

Nez Perce War of 1877

      • Chief Joseph surrenders
      • Nez Perce tribe is sent to Oklahoma

Nez Perce War of 1877

  • Chief Joseph’s Surrender Speech

    • “I am tired of fighting.
    • Our chiefs are killed…..The old men are all dead. He who led the young men is dead.
    • It is cold and we have no blankets.
    • The little children are freezing to death.
    • My people—some of them have run away to the hills and have no blankets and no food.
    • No one knows where they are—perhaps freezing to death.
    • I want to have time to look for my children and see how many of them I can find.
    • Maybe I shall find them among the dead.
    • Hear me, my chiefs, my heart is sick and sad…
    • From where the sun now stands I will fight no more forever.”

Directions for Jeopardy Game

  • The following slide is a review of facts done in a Jeopardy game format.

  • Divide the class into teams.

    • The teams will take turns selecting a question
  • The first team contestant will pick a category and an amount

    • Make sure to click in the center of the button when you select.
      • The question appears
    • When you want to check the answer, select anywhere on the screen.
    • Push the home button to get another question.
  • Keep track of the team scores

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