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qadiri, sheikh muhammad ilyas attar qadiri (p. 104)
Dawat-e-Islami, which translates as ‘invitation to Islam,’ is a Sunni revival movement of the Barelwi 
sect. Based in Pakistan, this network’s influence is spread over 6 continents and 71 countries with a 
substantial following in the UK. Sheikh Muhammad Ilyas Attar Qadiri founded the group in 1980. 
Promoting an apolitical agenda--mainly to spread the message of the Qur’an and knowledge about 
the prophetic tradition--this network has grown over the years and now produces a 24-hour satellite 
channel, ‘Madani Channel.’ 
Tablighi Jamaat
abd al wahhab, hajji mohammed (p. 58)
Abd al Wahhab is the leader of the Pakistan-based organization, Tablighi Jamaat, which has chapters 
in 120 countries. The movement’s Raiwind Tablighi Ijtima annual conference, in the Punjab, Pakistan 
drew  1.5 million attendees in 2009. With approximately 3 million members attending the annual 
Biswa Ijtima conference in Bangladesh, the Tablighi Jamaat is an increasingly influential Muslim 
network from South Asia. 
Gülen Movement
gülen, hodjaefendi fethullah (p. 52)
Fethullah Gülen is a preacher, thinker and educator, who having assumed the leadership of the 
religious movement Nurcu—started by Said Nursî (1878-1960 CE)—has gone on to become a global 
phenomenon in his own right. His popularity and authority in Turkey has been the driving force 
of a social movement. This movement is widely thought to have brought around the social, and 
eventually, political changes of which politician Recep Tayyip Erdogan has been the ultimate heir—
that is the enfranchisement of Muslim politics in Turkey. Despite his peaceful means of preaching 
and community organization, Gülen is hated by the secularist establishment in Turkey and has been 
living in the US since 1999. The Gülen Movement started out as a distinctly Turkish movement but 
has since spread worldwide. Gülen has schools in almost every corner of the globe. 

International Islamic Networks
Muslim World League
The Muslim World League, or Rabita al Alam al Islami is a Makkah-based non-governmental 
organization with a representative body of 60 leaders from Islamic countries worldwide. With 
observer status at the United Nations and the Organization of the Islamic Conference, the MWL is a 
leading organization in the Muslim world with increasing global influence. Recently, the MWL called 
for international judiciary action against Israel’s treatment of holy sites in Jerusalem and the 2009 
Gaza siege. The MWL has also led high-level interfaith symposiums under the auspices of HM King 
Abdullah Bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud.
World Islamic Call Society
gaddafi, his excellency colonel muammar (p. 54)
The WICS is one of the leading organizations working globally to promote the Islamic faith. It has 
worked largely in Africa on development and spreading the message of Islam. It is a huge network of 
over 250 organizations with a powerful patron: Libyan leader HE Colonel Muammar Gaddafi.

Al Aqsa 
bin al hussein, his majesty king abdullah ii (p. 34)
HM King Abdullah II of Jordan is the custodian of the Muslim holy sites in the city of Jerusalem. 
He maintains a unique prestige in the region. He has gone on record in March 2010 to condemn 
Israel’s inclusion of West Bank religious sites in its national heritage list. The Awqaf and Islamic 
Affairs ministry announced in 2010 a donation of over 2 million  Jordanian Dinar from HM King 
Abdullah II for projects around the Al Aqsa compound. 
Green Revolution (Iran)
moussavi, his excellency mir-hossein (p. 88) 
“Where is my Vote?” became the slogan of the ‘Green Movement’ that gained speed in the aftermath 
of Mousavvi’s loss in the 2009 presidential campaign. The movement garnered international 
attention after millions of protesters went out to the streets to call for a recount and ignited a 
violent confrontation with the basij forces—under the Revolutionary Guard. The cause reaped 
global support, specifically in various social media outlets such as Twitter and Facebook. Mousavvi 
has since headed an NGO called the Green Path that comprises six main members and various 
other reformist movements to demand the implementation of the constitution and political 
reform in Iran. 
U.S. Foreign Policy in the Muslim world
hussain, rashad (p. 121) and pandith, farah 
Since President Barack Obama’s appointment of Rashad Hussein and Farah Pandith as liaisons to 
the Muslim world, they have come to global attention. Although Muslim communities in the US 
and abroad receive the outreach with skepticism, positive feedback from Hussein and Pandith’s 
initial tasks could potentially lay the ground for improved relations between the US and the 
Muslim world. Hussein is Deputy Associate Counsel and US envoy to the Organization of the 
Islamic Conference. Pandith continues to serve as Special Representative to Muslim Communities 
for the US Department of State, since her appointment in 2009. 
omer, mohammed 
An award-winning journalist, Mohammed Omar has been credited with reporting on the crises in 
Gaza for major media outlets. He was raised in Rafah refugee camp and despite calamities faced by 
his family--his father was imprisoned, his teenage brother was killed, his mother was injured in a 
demolition--he dedicates himself to journalism and reporting on the crisis. He is the recipient of 
the 2008 Martha Gellhorn Prize for Journalism. 

Issues of the Day
the ‘a common word’ group
This group of 138 Islamic scholars and clerics is the catalyst behind a global bridge-building effort 
between Christians and Muslims. ‘A Common Word Between Us and You’ is an open letter issued 
from Muslim leaders to Christian leaders about the common ground between both religious 
communities, highlighting points of commonality found in the commandment to love God and 
one’s neighbor; ( 
nasr, professor dr seyyed hossein (p. 89)
Nasr has tackled issues regarding the environment from a scholarly perspective, leading a 
movement to use Islamic teachings to help in the fight against climate change. The term Nasr  
employs is ‘eco-theology’. His is an important figure in advocacy that promotes environmentalism 
underscored as a matter of religious duty. 
al nahyan, his highness sheikh khalifa bin zayed (p. 114)
Al Nahyan is the president of one of the fastest-growing nations in the world, the United Arab 
Emirates. He is funding the construction of the world’s first eco-city, Masdar, with zero carbon 
emissions which will run mostly on renewable energy. The cost of Masdar is estimated between 
$15-30 billion. 
nasheed, his excellency mohamed
As the president of the Madives, Nasheed is one of the most environmentally conscious state 
leaders in the world.  In the earliest stages of his political career, Nasheed was imprisoned for his 
crticism of his country’s government and became an Amnesty Prisoner of Conscience. Today, 
Nasheed has managed to make the Maldives carbon-neutral within a decade by moving the 
country’s energy reliance to wind and solar power only. Time magazine named Nasheed #1 in the 
‘Leaders & Visionaries’ category within its annual list of Heroes of the Environment in 2009.
esack, farid
Farid Esack runs a faith-based organization in the field of HIV/AIDS. His organization, Positive 
Muslims, was established in 2000. It offers services from an Islamic perspective and encourages 
compassion, mercy and non-judgementalism towards all humankind. South Africa is one of the 
areas worst affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. 
engineer, asghar ali (p. 102)
The Asian Muslim Action Network (AMAN), of which Engineer is chairman, seeks to build 
awareness and capacity among Muslim communities in Asia so that they may effectively respond 
to the growing problem of HIV/AIDS.

Issues of the Day
Houthi Rebellion
houthi, abdul-malik
Houthi is the leading figure in an insurgency in the Sadah province in northern Yemen which has 
been continuing from 2004 to the present day. The uprising has been called the Houthi Rebellion 
due to Houthi’s leadership. The Zaidi community comprises around half of the population of 
Yemen, and is concentrated in the north. In traditional Zaidi religious belief if there is no clear 
leader for the Zaidi community a Caliph can emerge through armed struggle. Yemen was formerly 
under the control of a Zaidi Caliph; the Zaidi Caliphate ended in 1962. Houthi’s brothers Yahia 
Badreddin and Abdul-Karim are also leaders in the insurgency. 
zafar, roshaneh (p. 147) 
An economist by training, Roshaneh Zafar is a social entrepreneur and founder of the Kashf 
Foundation, the third-largest microfinance institution in Pakistan, which specializes in offering 
financial services to women and their families to facilitate their economic independence and self-
reliance. The Kashf Foundation has disbursed over $200 million and has a national network of 152 
Hijab Rights
dashti, dr rola 
Dr Rola Dashti was one of four women to be elected to the Kuwaiti parliament in 2009 after 
successfully lobbying for the rights of women to vote and run for parliamentary elections in 2005. 
She is actively engaged in leadership positions with numerous organizations, as chairperson of the 
Kuwait Economic Society, executive member of Young Arab Leaders (Kuwait), and founder of the 
Women Participation Organization, among others. Following her election Dashti was noted as one 
of two MPs who refuse to wear the hijab to parliamentary meetings, protesting a stipulation that 
requires all MPs to strictly adhere to shari‘a law—a  stipulation which is considered by some to be 
an unconstitutional oppression of religious freedom. Dashti continues to be vocal as a democratic 
and gender-equality activist. 
Youth Unemployment
younis, ahmed
Younis is the young former national director of the Muslim Public Affairs Council in the United 
States (MPAC). His current job is to create strategic partnerships at Silatech, an organization that 
recently started to push for greater youth employment in the Middle East and North Africa. These 
regions in particular have some of the world’s highest youth unemployment rates. 
Economic Development
guiapal, aleem siddiqu 
Guiapal is the project director of the Young Moro Professional Network (YMPN). This organization 
is made up of 200 Muslim scholars, students and professionals who are all using their unique skills 
to alleviate the plight of marginalized Muslim communities. 

Issues of the Day
Uighur Chinese Relations
kadeer, rebiya
Kadeer is the de facto leader of the movement for social justice for the 15-million-strong Uighur 
ethnic-population of China. She was formerly a successful businesswoman and philanthropist in 
China but was imprisoned in 2000 for leaking state secrets and now lives in exile in the United 
States. Before her arrest, Kadeer was running the 1,000 Families Mothers’ Project, which helped 
Uighur women start businesses. She now presides over both the World Uighur Congress and the 
Uighur American Association. She is well-known for her work in Europe and North America 
publicizing the plight of the Uighur ethnic group, and is partially responsible for raising the issue’s 
status both in China and abroad. The Chinese government sees Kadeer as an agitator. She was 
nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 2006. 


Ahl Al Bayt (or Aal Al Bayt): Literally, the people of the house; refers to the family of the 
Prophet Muhammad.
Ahl as Sunnah wa’l Jama’ah: Literally, people of the practices of the Prophet Muhammad 
and the Muslim community. 
Al Fatiha: Literally, ‘the opening’, this is the title for the first chapter of the Holy Qur’an 
which is recited as a fundamental part of Muslims’ daily prayers.
Allah: Arabic for God. 
Aqida: Creed: This refers to the theological and doctrinal beliefs of Muslims.
Ash’ari: The school of Sunni Orthodoxy named after the followers of the 9th century 
scholar Abu al Hasan al Ash’ari (874-936 CE).
Azaan/Adhan: The call to prayer.
Bid’a: Literally ‘innovation’; this refers to the act of creating superfluous, or non-
prescribed traditions in the practice of Islam. It is used in common speech as a 
denunciation toward those not acting in accordance with the prescriptions of Islam. 
Caliph: The head of the entire community of Muslims, either current or in the past. Is 
also used by certain sects to refer to their own leader.
Chador: A loose cloth traditionally worn by Muslim women which usually covers the 
body from head to foot.
Da’i/ Da’ee: Missionary.
Da’wa: Islamic missionary work; literally ‘making an invitation’ to the religion.
Emir (or Amir): A title accorded to a leader, prince, or commander-in-chief.
Fatwa: Islamic legal ruling, or legal pronouncement. It is not synonymous with a death 
sentence as is sometimes thought in the West.
Fiqh: Islamic jurisprudence (the philosophy of law). This is the scholarly pursuit that 
enables individuals to have an educated understanding of Islamic law.
Fiqh al Aqaliyaat: Islamic legal rulings for Muslims living as minorities in foreign lands. 
Hadith: Literally ‘sayings’. These are a set of references to the life of the Prophet 
Muhammad. There are numerous Hadith, and the practice of verifying them is an Islamic 
scholarly practice of its own that has been carried out since the life of the Prophet.
Hafiz (or Hafiza) al Qur’an: A person who has committed the entire Qur’an to memory, 
and can recite the Qur’an at will. This is important in Islam because the Qur’an was 
originally revealed as an oral text.
Hajj: The pilgrimage to Mecca. It is mandatory for every Muslim who is able to do it, and 
can afford it. Hajj is one of the five pillars of Islam. The pilgrimage occurs from the 8th 
to 12th day of Dhu al-Hijjah, the 12th month of the Islamic calendar.
Halal: Permissible. A term referring to actions or objects that are permissible according 
to Islamic law. Commonly refers to food items that are permissible for Muslims to eat. 

Haram: Sanctuary. 
Hijab: Headscarf worn by Muslim women. 
Hijaz: The region along the west coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
Ibadi: The Ibadi school has origins in and is linked to the Kharijites, but the modern day 
community is distinct from the 7th century Islamic sect. It was founded after the death 
of Prophet Muhammad and is currently practiced by a majority of Oman’s Muslim 
population. Also found across parts of Africa.
Ihsan: Virtue through constant regard to, and awareness of God.
Ijaza: Certification.
Ijtihad: Independent reasoning, or individual interpretation of the Qur’an. 
Imam: (1) In both Sunni and Shi‘a Islam an imam is the leader of congregational prayers 
who may also deliver the Friday prayer (Jum’a) sermon; more generally, a person of 
authority within the community. (2) In Shi‘a Islam this exclusively refers to a series of 
people, descended from the Prophet Muhammad, who by lineage are considered divinely 
guided spiritual leaders.
Imamate: The position or institution, in Shi‘a Islam, that is comprised of a series of 
divinely guided imams.
Iman: Faith in God. 
Islam: Submission to God’s will.
Jihad: Struggle. An exertion of effort in any field, not just in war.
Ka’ba: The large cubic structure in the Grand Mosque in Mecca, adorned in gold 
embroidered black fabric, referred to by Muslims as the ‘House of God’. This structure 
marks the direction in which Muslims pray and is central to the Hajj pilgrimage when 
it is circumambulated, a practice rooted in pre-Islamic Arabia when it contained idols 
subsequently removed by the Prophet Muhammad.
Khat: Script. 
Khateeb: One who traditionally delivers the Friday sermon; orator. 
Khawarij: A group of Muslims in early Islamic history who went against the larger 
community and became outsiders. A term used to describe political deviants.
Khums: Literally, 1/5 in Arabic; a religious tax of 1/5 of one’s income owed by followers 
of Usuli Twelver Shi‘a to a very senior cleric.
Madhabs: Traditional schools of Islamic legal methodology (e.g. Hanbali, Maliki, Shafi’i, 
Hanafi, Jafari).
Madrassa: The Arabic word for ‘school’. Can refer to a religious school. 
Majles al Shura: Consultative religio-legislative body. 
Marja/Marjaiyya: The highest position of authority in the Usuli school of Twelver 

Shi’i fiqh. Also referred to as marja taqlid, meaning literally one who is worthy of being 
Masjid: Arabic for ‘mosque’.
Maturidi: The school of Sunni Orthodoxy named after the followers of the 9th century 
scholar Muhammad Abu Mansur al Maturidi (853-944 CE).
Melayu Islam Beraja: The concept of Malay Islamic monarchy.  
Morchidat: Literally, guides. Refers to the Moroccan cadre of trained female preachers. 
Mufti: A Muslim legal expert who is empowered to give rulings on religious matters. 
Muqri: A reciter of Qur’an. 
Murid: Follower of a Sufi guide or order. 
Mursyidul Am: Malaysian term for religious guide. 
Mutabarrik: Supporter or affiliate of a Sufi guide or order.
Mu’tazili: An almost obsolete school of Sunni Islam, popular in the 8th century, that 
advocates the belief that the Qur’an was created—as opposed to the Orthodox Sunni 
view that it is eternal and uncreated.
Nasheed: Religious song traditionally performed without musical instruments.
Pancasila: Indonesian concept of five basic, national principles: belief in the Oneness of 
God, just and civilized humanity, the unity of Indonesia, democracy, and social justice.
Pesantren: The term for Islamic schools in Indonesia. 
Qibla: The direction in which Muslims offer their five daily prayers; the direction of the 
Ka’ba in Mecca.
Ramadan: Holy month of fasting. 
Salafi: A movement of Sunni Muslims that places great emphasis on literal interpretation 
of the Qur’an and Hadith, with skepticism towards the role of human. 
Shahadatayn: The two testimonies of faith: There is no deity but God. Muhammad is 
the Messenger of God. Stating these two sentences is sufficient to become a Muslim.
Shari‘a: Literally, ‘the way to the source’, this refers to Islamic law. Islamic law is not, as 
is widely perceived, a standard set of written rules, but is rather an unwritten text that 
is interpreted by legal scholars in specific instances, drawing on the Qur’an and other 
reliable religious sources relevant to the tradition followed.
Sheikh: (1) A position of authority granted to people who are respected in society. (2) 
A religious official.
Shia: The second-largest denomination of Muslims referred to as Shi‘atu ‘Ali or ‘party of 
‘Ali,’ the fourth caliph of Islam and first imam in Shi’ism.
Sunna: Literally ‘the trodden path’; this refers to the ways and practices of the Prophet 

Muhammad. Reference to these practices can be found in the Qur’an and in the Hadith.
Sunni: The largest denomination of Muslims referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jama‘ah 
or ‘people of the prophetic tradition and community’—with emphasis on emulating the 
life of the Prophet Muhammad.
Tafsir: Interpretation of the Qur’an, either by commentary or exegesis. 
Taqlid: The practice of following rulings without questioning the religious authority. 
This is a core tenet of the Usuli school of Islamic law.
Ummah: The collective Muslim community. 
Velayat-e Faqih: A position of both spiritual and temporal powers in the Republic of 
Iran. Literally, Guardianship of the Jurists, referring to the fact that while the Mahdi 
(awaited one) is in occultation, the jurists should have guardianship over the earth.
Waqf: A religious endowment or charitable trust.
Zakat: The religious obligation to annually give one-fortieth of one’s income and savings  
to the poor and destitute.

The Muslim world spans far and wide with 
majority Muslim countries nestled around the 
equator and concentrated in many parts of North 
Africa, the Middle East, South and South East 
Asia. An estimated 22% of the world's population 
is Muslim—spanning approximately 50 countries 
as a majority and speaking around 60 different 
first languages. 

st Bank
and Gaza

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