Information technology has changed our lives


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Sana10.06.2019
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Information technology has changed our lives

  • Information technology has changed our lives

  • That technology has not penetrated the third world to the extent that if penetrates out lives

  • The constraints of developing for the third world are different



Connectivity cannot be assumed.

  • Connectivity cannot be assumed.

  • Power cannot be assumed

  • Services cannot be assumed

  • Money is a huge issue

  • Literacy cannot be assumed



Many Villages are not wired

  • Many Villages are not wired

  • Wireless may be the only communications

  • Even this may be unreliable



Power may not be available



Systems placed in villages will not be maintained

  • Systems placed in villages will not be maintained

  • Parts will not be available

  • The knowledge to repair any issues cannot be assumed



The cost of a laptop is more than the average yearly income in many countries

  • The cost of a laptop is more than the average yearly income in many countries

  • In India a cell phone can be bought for $12

  • A village might have a single cell phone







Very Portable

  • Very Portable

  • Cheap and getting cheaper

  • Solves problems with intermittent and rarely available power

  • Automatically solve the problem of connectivity

  • Is sealed, self contained, rugged and very reliable



Today we talk about mobile devices as the wave of the future.

  • Today we talk about mobile devices as the wave of the future.

  • In the third world they are the only widely available computing platform

  • Effective solutions today need to consider the cell phone as the primary platform.



Problem – Fishermen in India can deliver their fish to one of several markets

  • Problem – Fishermen in India can deliver their fish to one of several markets

  • If a market has more fisherman than buyers, the price for fish will be very low

  • If there are few fisherman and many then the price will be high











Must bring health care to people

  • Must bring health care to people

  • First line of defense

  • Routine, regular home visits

  • Know their community

  • Eyes and ears for local health

  • Provide education for best practices 



Little, if any, supervision

  • Little, if any, supervision

  • Paper-based forms – ad hoc design

  • Long time-lag to usable data

  • No historical data 



Standardization of data

  • Standardization of data

  • Rapid data aggregation and

  • analysis

  • Supervision of CHWs

  • Connection to health records (OpenMRS)

  • CHW + phone => Flexible, efficient platform for:

    • Better home care (checklists, protocols, etc)
    • New outreach programs
    • Outbreak detection
    • Improved disease surveillance


Open-source data collection tool kit

  • Open-source data collection tool kit

    • Collaboration between Google & UWashington
    • Forms + GPS + Picture + Barcode + Audio + Video …
  • Initially targeted at public health applications

  • Current deployments in Uganda and Kenya

    • http://code.google.com/p/open-data-kit


Collect – Android client for data entry

  • Collect – Android client for data entry

  • Aggregate – App Engine server for data collection

  • Submit – multi-transport layer async data transfer

  • Manage – remote management tools for config

  • Tasks – assignment of tasks to specific workers

  • DB – connect forms to existing DBs for browse/update

  • Viz – visualization of data on graphs/maps

  • Super – supervisory dashboard for mobile supervisors

  • Planner – day planning tools for workers

  • SMS – communication/notification with community



Xforms – W3C

  • Xforms – W3C

    • Same data collection forms can run on any platform
  • Standard HTTP client/server APIs

  • Android

    • Open source platform with multiple implementations by different vendors (HTC, Samsung, …)
  • Example: DataDyne/Episurveyor & Open Data Kit

    • Same forms (but different capabilities)
    • Data can be submitted to either server
    • Allows deployments to use mix of platforms


A tool build on top of XForms

  • A tool build on top of XForms

  • Using JavaRosa (XForms for Mobile Devices) for data collection and submission on the Android



XForms is an XML standard developed by W3C for specifying Forms in XML

  • XForms is an XML standard developed by W3C for specifying Forms in XML

  • Example

  • Oberon forms



JavaRosa

  • JavaRosa

  • Supports a supports a subset of the xform standard

  • Questions are asked one per screen

  • Supports many phones

  • Written in Java ME



Android library written to support JavaRosa Forms.

  • Android library written to support JavaRosa Forms.

  • Supports Standard Types – text, number date, select, multiselect

  • Supports Bar Code, Picture, GPS inputs

  • Supports upload to a server running ODK Aggregate





Its native language is Java

  • Its native language is Java

  • It supports full JDK 1.6

  • The platform is open source

  • Well known tools such as Eclipse and IntelliJ have Android plug-ins

  • Application distribution is much less controlled

  • Build it and they will come!















Language Section

  • Language Section

    • Define Keys for all Supported Languages
  • Instance Section

    • Define Structure of the data
  • Binding Section

    • Annotate requirements
    • Define Conditions
  • Input Section

    • Define Controls


  • Male

  • Female

  • Sex

  • M�nnlich

  • Weiblich

  • Sex



Google has a very nice API for translation

  • Google has a very nice API for translation

  • Machine translation is good for a first cut

  • Is also good for field use where a translation is needed and not translator is available

  • Automatic tools to add needed entries to multiple language bundles are easy and worthwhile.

  • My tools build the language section from language bundles



import com.google.api.translate.Translate;

  • import com.google.api.translate.Translate;

  • import com.google.api.translate.Language;

  • public static final String WEB_SITE = "http://code.google.com/p/i18n-translator/";

  • public String[] translate(String[] input, Language from, Language to) throws Exception

  • {

  • Translate.setHttpReferrer(WEB_SITE );

  • System.setProperty("http.proxyHost", "proxy");

  • System.setProperty("http.proxyPort", "8080");

  • return Translate.execute(input, from, to);

  • }




  • ...





  • Male

  • Female

  • ...



PurcForms a GWT based tool for editing XForms

  • PurcForms a GWT based tool for editing XForms

  • ODK Forms Designer a GWT tool specifically targetted to ODK

  • Annotation Based Generator



Infrastructure for Storing results

  • Infrastructure for Storing results

  • Build on top of Google App Engine

  • Demo http://lordjoedev.appspot.com/



















http://haiticrisis.appspot.com/

  • http://haiticrisis.appspot.com/











Demo

  • Demo



I-Tech (International Training and Education Center for Health

  • I-Tech (International Training and Education Center for Health

  • Health Workforce Development

  • Operations Research and Evaluation

  • Prevention, Care, and Treatment of Infectious Diseases

  • Health Systems Strengthening

  • http://www.go2itech.org/what-we-do



MRS and LIMS

  • MRS and LIMS

  • “In every country where I-TECH works, health needs and program goals are best met when local laboratories and services are reliable, consistent, and readily available.”

  • Electronic Medical Record Systems (MRS)

  • Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS)

  • [ http://www.go2itech.org/what-we-do/heath-systems-strengthening/laboratory-systems-strengthening/laboratory-systems-strengthening ]



In the first world the cell phone is the wave of the future

  • In the first world the cell phone is the wave of the future

  • In the third world the cell phone is currently the main line computing device.

  • Cell phones can make a huge difference in the absence of viable alternatives.

  • The University of Washington has a very active program in this area



Work with the CHANGE group at the University of Washington

  • Work with the CHANGE group at the University of Washington

  • Subscribe to the developers mailing lists for ODK and JavaRosa

  • Contribute time and code.



Open Data Kit

  • Open Data Kit

  • Open MRS

  • University of Washington Change Center

  • Crisis Mappers







http://demo.openmrs.org/

  • http://demo.openmrs.org/




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