Keywords: social practices, education, archaization, corruption, hazing, conservatism. Introduction
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Keywords: social practices, education, archaization, corruption, hazing, conservatism.
The author's reflexive emphasis in this study is mainly focused on the intersection of the problems of
finding out the heuristic possibilities of archaization concept and the characteristics of this social phenomenon
manifestation in modern Russian society. In the socio-philosophical context, one of the most significant
consequences of socio-cultural changes is the rapid change in the state of society under the influence of
internal and external factors. A person revises the foundations, traditions and values within the space of socio-
cultural changes. In addition, it concerns both norms and methods of communication. Such a change in the
subject of socio-philosophical reflection entails the need to consolidate a new public discourse, the
construction of adequate theoretical and methodological toolkit that could more adequately reflect the
characteristics of change. Thus, the relevance of the socio-philosophical study of archaization in Russian
society is determined by the following circumstances. First, it is a weak theoretical and methodological
development and empirical study of various manifestations, trends, levels and forms of archaization in
society. Secondly, the importance of this topic is in understanding the social practice of social development
and socio-cultural transformation of Russia. Thirdly, there is an urgent need to determine the status of the
current Russian realities in the context of socio-cultural changes at the levels of social practices and mass
consciousness in social and philosophical thought.
The aim of the study is to analyze the manifestations of archaization in the social practices of the
emerging mass society.
The study objectives: to consider the archaization of social practices in the context of challenges of mass
society; to reveal the manifestations of archaization in the practices of power and organizational and
The theoretical and methodological basis of this study are the theoretical attitudes and ideas set out in
the works of researchers devoted to the study of various aspects of the phenomenon of archaization in
society, as well as general scientific methods of social cognition – analysis and synthesis, induction and
deduction, abstraction and typing. We used the principles of studying social phenomena in the framework
of classical and post-non-classical scientific paradigms. In order to identify the socio–cultural foundations of
the content, levels and modes of archaization in modern Russian society, the author relies on theoretical
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approaches to understanding society as a space of socio-cultural transformation in the coordinates of
modernization and de-modernization. Among them: a) socio-cultural approach; b) the concept of challenge of
modernity; c) the theory of de-modernization and feudalization; d) the concept of man-mass and mass society.
In the situation of increasing archaization in modern Russian society, social practices primarily
experience its influence, acting as a kind of resource in the difficult conditions of the transition period.
Archaization appeals to the basics of sociocultural experience of society and has a well-defined object
No wonder A. Ryabov (2008) proceeds from the fact that in this existence rudiments of the past appear.
In an environment where business is widely dependent on the state and authorities, officials consider
positions that allow them to extract rent as reliable ways to generate high incomes. It is necessary to refer to
the archaic and coming from the ruling elite frank propaganda of anti-egalitarianism, class, corporatism,
which contradicts the social dynamics of modern society.
Archaization of social practices in the context of the challenge of modernity has undergone a noticeable evolution
in Russian society.
In the 1990s, after the collapse of the Soviet state, social chaos and some primitive jungle reigned. As in
the natural jungle, in the social jungle the process of adaptation and natural selection of the best individuals,
depending on their functional affiliation began.
Nevertheless, in the first decade of the twenty-first century, the situation began to change. The current
conditions began to contribute to the manifestation of certain trends in public attitudes, which acted as
sources of archaization. Accordingly, it is in the first decade of the twenty-first century that the ruling elites
consciously and purposefully begin to act in the direction of archaization in order to stop the changes. All
this collectively had an impact on the practices of social and cultural interaction and the existence of life.
Technologies of political influence are activated– that is, a set of rules, procedures, methods of
influence on the political process, which provided a specific actor with optimal and effective implementation
of his/her goals and objectives.
In fact: the number of prisoners per capita in Russia is much higher than the post-Stalin level (with, as
far as one can judge, the practical cessation of the fight against crime); Brezhnev gerontocracy looks
competitive and self – renewing environment against the background of the current one, and corrupt party
economic nomenclature is a crowd of disinterested, sincerely concerned ones about the welfare of the people
(Shakhbanova et al., 2018).
The Soviet bureaucrats, who graduated from the locomotive College against the background of the
current ones with Harvard diplomas, give the impression of deep intellectuals, and the scattering of money
for manic ambitious programs against the background of modern investments, innovations, infrastructure,
Olympiads and Championships, not to mention the infusion of money into the military-industrial complex,
seems to be a long-term and over-rational investment. The fact is that the result of the described marvelous
process was the return to everyday life of the most monstrous, the ugliest features of Soviet life, which
professional Democrats with General relief declared long ago eradicated.
As a result, social practices as a set of traditional cultural ways of working, skills of dealing with
people, following the rule, behavior that has a ritual nature and is based on collective ideas, expectations and
standards are increasingly affected by the archaic component.
Korolev (2009) proceeds from the fact that hazing is Amateur and illegitimate analogues of corporal
punishment, illegal, criminal practices and techniques of suppression of the weaker by the stronger. Another
author A.Yu. Solnyshkov (2008) writes that in the army there are illegal social practices that distort informal
relations between military-short-termers, significantly reduce the effectiveness of management interaction in
military units. They have a negative impact on the prestige of military service, a destructive impact on the
physical, psychological and social condition of soldiers and are difficult to social correction. In official
documents, such practices are usually referred to as non-statutory relations and their unofficial name is hazing
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The penitentiary system has a crippling effect on the human psyche, which causes the growth of asocial
minded population. "We have a cumbersome, expensive, allowing the constant reproduction of crime system
of execution of criminal penalties, carrying systemic risks to the security of the country."
The Minister formulated the essence succinctly and clearly: we live in a Gulag and Royal penal
servitude. Instead of correcting criminals, we turn them into repeat offenders, instead of returning normal
people to society, we produce lumpens. Moreover, as in Russia, almost every or was imprisoned, or he has
someone from relatives and friends who was imprisoned, it turns out that the tsarist-Stalinist penal system
cripples the whole country. We in fact live in the gangster state. Where the criminal is a romantic hero,
where the most popular songs are about thieves, where stealing is honorable, and killing a person is a
Archaization is manifested in the practices of forced (slave) labor. Speaking about the forms and types
of forced labor, usually talk about physical violence or the threat of violence (including sexual); about the
restriction of freedom of workers’ movement; about the seizure and retention of documents; about debt
bondage (debt for credit); about psychological violence: blackmail, etc.; about the retention of wages until
the end of work; about the manipulation of the employee, etc.
Experts recorded the spread of particularly cynical forms of forced labor. All this takes place in the
context of such new phenomena for Russia as illegal migration, the growth of asocial elements and
marginalized groups (prostitutes, homeless people, street children, the poor, the unemployed, the sick,
alcoholics), the spread of criminal practices of manipulating people, over-exploitation (Kovalev et al., 2016).
Thus, the archaization of social practices in the context of the challenges of mass society is largely
because in Russia the consequences of globalization are layered on the processes of the collapse of the
previous systems of social order. The new social reality, experiencing the manifestations of archaization, is
characterized by crisis trends and characteristics, which is manifested in the deformation of the system of
values, the crisis of identity, destructive adaptation strategies, social apathy, and alienation of the masses
from the processes of social regulation.
The current social and political conditions contributed to the manifestation of certain trends in public
opinion and in public attitudes, acting as sources of archaization, which was associated with the destruction
of the existing cultural layers and the immersion of consciousness in the archaic layers of culture and
archetypes of the collective unconscious. A larger-scale traditionalization of society began and an appeal to
the largely fictional past, a return to the archaic, primitive, mythologized mass representations. At the same
time, the ruling elites consciously and purposefully begin to act in the direction of archaization in order to
stop the changes threatening their omnipotence (Lubsky, Kolesnikova & Lubsky, 2016).
The Chekists as the "fundamental principles" of the modern regime have their own corporate
mythology. It says, among other things, that the Communist party, headed by its Secretary General,
betrayed the Soviet Union. Chekists were not allowed to save the country because of a bunch of traitors. The
mythologization of the image of Andropov is connected with this postulate. No wonder in the chekist
environment, Vladimir Putin positions himself as the second Andropov. Now Russia is the right version of the
USSR. Historical justice has been restored. Power is in good hands. The enemy will not pass. So due to the
inertia of social processes and for a number of other reasons, a number of features of the Soviet model in an
extremely deteriorated form was able to revive. The Soviet project had ended, but de-Sovietization of society
and elites did not happen. Still, trying to copy the Soviet model with some modifications to solve the modern
problems facing the country is as unrealistic as making a violin out of a balalaika (Lubsky, Kolesnikova &
The phenomenon of corruption is also associated with archaization.
Researchers from the Institute of sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences believe that in the
long-term approach the problem of combating corruption is inseparable from the struggle for the democratic
organization of state power, which is perceived as the most honest form of it. Reducing corruption is one of
the main conditions for the progressive and harmonious development of society in the world today.
Mostly, the bureaucratic reality involves all the inhabitants of the state, who ever had to write any
statement or just visit some institution or office to put the seal.
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During the election campaign in the spring of 2012, Vladimir Putin in one of his program articles
Democracy and the quality of the state, published in the newspaper Kommersant, rightly drew attention to the
fact that "we need a new state consciousness, in the center of which – the creation in Russia of the best, most
competitive conditions for life, creativity and entrepreneurship. In this logic, the activity of the entire state
apparatus should be built... to Break the link power – property. The borders of the state and the limits of its
interference in economic life should be clearly established" (Kovalev et al., 2016).
Indeed, a return to normalcy requires decentralization of governance, where each level and territory
has its own autonomy and is capable of carrying out its own clearly defined tasks (Vodenko et al., 2018).
Now federalism and separation of powers exist only on paper. The three branches of government are
practically fused together. Local, regional and regional-Federal authorities are working on the
implementation of signals that come from the Federal center. As in the former Soviet Union, not the
government implements the will of the people, and the people have to execute commands coming from the
Such phenomena, giving rise to a large scale of corruption in a variety of forms and manifestations,
reminiscent of common in Russia XV-XVI centuries of feeding practice, when managers were sent to lead the
local territories without paying their salaries for service, based on the fact that they will get the necessary
funds as a result of extortion (Frolova et al., 2015).
The inspections carried out in 11 Federal ministries and departments revealed more than 47 thousand
violations of the legislation on state and municipal service. According to their results, more than 600 criminal
cases were initiated; almost 2700 officials were brought to disciplinary and administrative responsibility
(Gorshkov & Trofimova, 2016).
At the same time, the volume of the corruption market was comparable with the Federal budget and
was estimated at more than $ 240 billion. According to polls of All-Russian center for public opinion
research, every third Russian demands death penalty introduction for corruption and economic crimes.
Almost 40 percent of respondents are in favor of radical cleaning and reduction of the state apparatus. The
same number of respondents consider it possible to make the confiscation of property of both corrupt
officials and their family members a norm (Chernous et al., 2015; Hassan et al., 2019).
The rapidly changing social and political environment affects all institutions of society, primarily
education. Educational practice as an integral historical socio-cultural organization of knowledge, thinking
and activity, ensuring the reproduction of a certain social reality, is experiencing contradictory influences
and challenges of our time.
Modernity as a concept is correlated with the problem situation in which society finds itself due to the
collapse of the system of higher attitudes and values that previously legitimized its social orders, providing
meaningfulness of the General world picture among the members of this community and being perceived by
them as the highest and objective reality (represented mythologically, religiously, in the form of universal
moral laws of nature or otherwise).
The challenges facing Russian education are multifaceted. Thus, the authors of the analytical report
"Modern challenges to the school and the system of socialization" distinguish the following.
First - the crisis of childhood, which is expressed in the blurring of the boundaries between childhood
and adulthood, and this process, can be described as the disappearance of childhood and as the disappearance of
of filters and boundaries between the child and the adult world, destroys an unambiguous hierarchy in
which knowledge, competence and experience were sent from the adult world to the world of childhood.
The reverse process-the infantilization of the adult world-is associated with the speed and density of
innovation in modern society. The need to master these innovations and adapt to them actually denies
adulthood as a stage of a fully formed personality, giving the adult the role of an eternal disciple (life-long
Second - the speed of change and the uncertainty of the future. Due to the increasing uncertainty of
the future, it is objectively impossible to predict the expected educational results, as true innovations are by
definition impossible to predict. Directly teachers lag behind in the pace of development of new technologies
and information from students. There is a gap in effective communication between teachers and students.
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Third - the erosion of national identity. Globalization leads to the formation of the so – called hybrid
identity: man's growing and development, the formation of his identity takes place on the material of two
types of samples: national (local) and global (for example, world cinema, music). Apparently, the identity
turns out to be fragmented (mosaic) in this situation.
Fourth - the increase in the volume of information. The modern information environment, first, the
Internet, creates new opportunities and creates new risks for socialization and education. The increase in the
volume and types of information flows leads to the spontaneity of protective forms of human behavior,
which are not able to process large amounts of information in limited periods. The tendency is formed of
simplification and primitivization, rejection of complex forms of culture and, above all, – thinking (Bedrik et
al., 2016; Nebessayeva et al, 2018).
Against the background of these challenges in Russia, there is a strengthening of conservative,
protective attitudes of public consciousness in relation to education. Education occupies one of the leading
places in the hierarchy of values of Russian citizens, but there are no specific and clear criteria for quality
education. Education turns from a functional good into a status one, into a necessary, but at the same time
only a status attribute of the biographical trajectory. As a result, there is, for example, unmotivated by labor
market demand for higher education.
Any attempt to revise the existing structure and content of education is seen as a limitation of the
rights to free education. This challenge is intensified by: the General crisis of citizens' confidence in the
government; the formed type of discourse on topical issues of society development (simplified,
straightforward, aggressive, ignoring data, substantive arguments); the sectoral factor: the opacity of the
education system, information asymmetry – the society has no objective idea of the quality of education, the
real opportunities that this quality provides for socialization and professional career, the real content of the
proposed reforms of education.
Sociological research conducted by the Institute of sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences in
2014 in 23 entities of the Russian Federation, including two megacities (Moscow and St. Petersburg), showed
that over the past two years in public life participated 23% of respondents with secondary education, 30%-
with secondary special and 46% – with higher education. 46% of Russians with secondary education, 59% –
with secondary special education and 63% – with higher education took part in political life. Respondents
with higher levels of education participated in a wider range of political and social practices (Gorshkov and
Education, considered as a practice of human development, should be aimed at self-determination
and self-actualization of the actor of educational activities to the available socio-cultural practices.
The analysis of primary results of educational reform in the Russian Federation at the end of the XX
century – the beginning of the XXI century shows their halves and inconsistency.
There have been no fundamental changes in the system of mass education. Although the unified state
examination, specialized training at the senior level of General education, two-level system of higher
professional education have become reforms of a systemic nature, the subjects of educational activities
usually consider them as superficial changes, and not affecting the essence of school or University life.
The main clientele of education is parents and students. Moreover, despite the dissatisfaction with the
current system, they unconsciously continue to engage in the reproduction of the norms of educational
practice that have become habitual.
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