Introduction to Smart Grid


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Introduction to Smart Grid

  • Introduction to Smart Grid

  • Smart Grid Communications Network (SGCN)

  • Communications Traffic and Required Quality of Services (QoSs)

  • Wireless Communications Technologies for SGCN

  • Neighbor Area Network (NAN) and Open Research Issues

  • Smart Grid Standards

  • Summary

  • References



a new digital meter on your breaker panel?

  • a new digital meter on your breaker panel?

  • a wireless network that reads those meters remotely or the data management system that processes the information?

  • some solar panels on the roof?

  • a load-controller on the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system?

  • Smart Grid is the inclusion of all of these things



an automated, widely distributed energy delivery network characterized by a two-way flow of electricity and information, capable of monitoring and responding to changes in everything from power plants to customer preferences to individual appliances” [1]

  • an automated, widely distributed energy delivery network characterized by a two-way flow of electricity and information, capable of monitoring and responding to changes in everything from power plants to customer preferences to individual appliances” [1]

  • “the electricity delivery system (from point of generation to point of consumption) integrated with communications and information technology for enhanced grid operations, customer services, and environmental benefits” (Funding for Smart GriFunding Grid Activities, US Department of Energy, 2009, link: www.gefa.org/Modules/ShowDocument.aspx?documentid=925)



Identify and resolve faults on electricity grid

  • Identify and resolve faults on electricity grid

  • Automatically self-heal the grid

  • Monitor power quality and manage voltage

  • Identify devices or subsystems that require maintenance

  • Help consumers optimize their individual electricity consumption (minimize their bills)

  • Enable the use of smart appliances that can be programmed to run on off-peak power



The key to achieving these potential benefits of SG is to successful build up Smart Grid Communications Network (SGCN) that can support all identified SG functionalities

  • The key to achieving these potential benefits of SG is to successful build up Smart Grid Communications Network (SGCN) that can support all identified SG functionalities

    • Advanced Metering Infrastructure(AMI),
    • Demand Response (DR),
    • Electric Vehicles (EVs),
    • Wide-Area Situational Awareness (WASA),
    • distributed energy resources and storage,
    • distribution grid management, etc.








Gathers a huge volume of various types of data and distributes important control signals from and to millions of devices installed at customer premises

  • Gathers a huge volume of various types of data and distributes important control signals from and to millions of devices installed at customer premises

  • The most critical segment that connects utilities and customers in order to enable primarily important SG applications



To support a huge number of devices that distribute over large geographical areas

  • To support a huge number of devices that distribute over large geographical areas

  • Must be scalable to network size and self-configurable

  • Heterogeneous and location-aware

  • Link condition and thus network connectivity are time-varying due to multipath fading, surrounding environment, harsh weather, electricity power outage, etc.



Deployed outdoor, thus must be robust to node and link failures

  • Deployed outdoor, thus must be robust to node and link failures

  • Carries different types of traffic that require a wide range of QoSs

  • Needs QoS awareness and provisioning

  • Mainly supports Multi-Point-to-Point (MP2P) and Point-to-Multiple-Point (P2MP) traffic

  • Very vulnerable to privacy and security





Greedy Geographic routing (GEO) [40]

  • Greedy Geographic routing (GEO) [40]

  • Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) [4146]

  • IEEE 802.11s Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol (HWMP) [4749]



Downlink Communications

  • Downlink Communications

  • QoS Differentiation and Provisioning

  • Network Self-healing

  • Multicasting

  • Cluster-based Routing

  • Optimal Network Design



Inter-operability: “the ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged”

  • Inter-operability: “the ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged”

  • The overall SG system is lacking widely accepted standards



Standards Development Organizations (SDOs):

  • Standards Development Organizations (SDOs):

    • National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST),
    • American National Standards Institute (ANSI),
    • International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC),
    • Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE),
    • International Organization for Standardization (ISO), International Telecommunication Union (ITU),
    • etc.
  • Alliances:

    • ZigBee Alliance, Wi-Fi Alliance, HomePlug Powerline Alliance, Z-Wave Alliance, etc.


“primary responsibility to coordinate development of a framework that includes protocols and model standards for information management to achieve inter-operability of smart grid devices and systems ...” (Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, Title XIII, Section 1305)

  • “primary responsibility to coordinate development of a framework that includes protocols and model standards for information management to achieve inter-operability of smart grid devices and systems ...” (Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, Title XIII, Section 1305)

  • Specific activities:

    • (i) identifying existing applicable standards
    • (ii) addressing and solving gaps where a standard extension or new standard is needed and
    • (iii) identifying overlaps where multiple standards address some common information


NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Inter-operability Standards, Release 1.0 [52]

  • NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Inter-operability Standards, Release 1.0 [52]

    • 25 relevant standards (and additional 50 standards for further review)
  • NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Inter-operability Standards, Release 2.0 [53]

    • 34 reviewed standards (and additional 62 standards for further review)


Priority Action Plans (PAPs), each addresses one of the following situations:

  • Priority Action Plans (PAPs), each addresses one of the following situations:

    • a gap exists, where a standard extension or new standard is needed;
    • an overlap exists, where two complementary standards address some information that is in common but different for the same scope of application






This chapter gives an insight view of the Smart Grid Communications Network (SGCN) by presenting

  • This chapter gives an insight view of the Smart Grid Communications Network (SGCN) by presenting

    • its layered architecture,
    • typical types of traffic that it may carry and associated quality of service requirements,
    • as well as candidate wireless communications technologies that can be employed for its implementation
  • Networking issues that the Neighbor Area Network (NAN) segment of SGCN needs to tackle are highlighted by

    • exploring characteristics and requirements of this network segment
    • identifying important gaps that existing wireless routing protocols need to cover for their applicability into NAN
  • This chapter also reviews a number of standards for smart grid inter-operability
















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